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Transcript of Lexical Approach
the lexis The lexical
approach What is the lexical
approach? Assumption about
learning theory Types of chunks
the lexical approach The assuption of native speakers having a great package of phrases in their lexical inventory has made the second language learning uncertain. Regarding this, krashen suggests that massive amounts of “language input” especially through reading. According to this author it is the only effective approach to such learning. Others propose making the language class a laboratory in which the students can explore with different kind of words combinations and research about their use in context. Others propose teaching lexical units that have no equivalent in the student´s mother tongue. Language consists of chunks. LA highlights the combinations which are not only possible but highly likely Encountering new learning items in several occasions is a necessary but sufficient condition for learning to occur. Noticing lexical chunks or collocation is a necessary but not sufficient condition for “input” to become e “intake”. Noticing similarities, differences, restriction and examples contribute taking input into intake, although formal descriptions of roles does not help. Acquisition is based not on the application of formal rules but on an accomilation of examples from which learners make provisional generalizations. Language production is the product of previously met examples, not formal rules. WORDS * can stand alone
* Single or
muty-words. COLLOCATIONS Wors of the four main parts speech which go together usually, but not always, two words. FIXED
EXPRESSION Expression which cannot be changed or can only be changed minimally. Most fixed expression are idiomatic or are those udes in polite speech (e.g. how´s it going?) SEMI-FIXED
EXPRESSION Expression which have at least one slot into which a number of different words or phrases can inserted. Teaching and
clasroom activities Classroom procedures generally involve activities in which the learner pays attention to lexical collocations and seck to enhance their retention and use of collocations. The teacher should develop class activities that enable learners to discover collocations themselves, both in the classroom and in the language they encounter outside the classroom Classroom procedures must inclue Teaching individual collocations Making students
aware of collocation Extending what students already know by adding knowledge of collocation restrictions to know vocabulary Storing collocations through encouragin students to keep a lexical notebook. Mental
lexicon The mental state of knowledge about words. It specifies how a word is spelt, pronounced, its parts of speech and what it means. Central attention to the lexicon and how the lexicon is coded formatted and organized. Raising student´s awarness of, and developing their ability to “chunk” language succesfully. Lexical chunks
and fluency The ability to retrieve ready-made chunks of language cuts down on planning time: the speaker is using long-term memory rather than processing capacity. speakers show a high degree of fluency when describing familiar experiences or activities in familiar phrases. It is notorious that speakers are at their most hesitant when describing the unfamiliar”. Language consists of gramaticalised lexis, not lexicalised grammar. The grammar/vocabulary dichotomy is in valid; much language consist of multi-words “chunks”. A central elements of language teaching is raising students´ awareness of, and developing their ability to chunk language succesfully. Although structural patterns are known as useful lexical and metaphorical patterning are accorded appropiate status. Collocations is integrated
as an organising
principle within syllabuses. The central metaphor of language is holistic-an organims; not atomistic-a machine. It is the co-textual rather than the situational elements of context which are of primary importance for language teaching. Grammar as a receptive skill, involving the percertion of similarity and difference, is prioritised. Receptive still,
enhanced status. The present-practice-produce paradigm is rejected in favor of a paradigm based on the observe-hypothesise- experimen cycle Word formation: happy, unhappy, unhappily, unhappiness etc. Pattern grammar: eg= spend/waste (time). Grammatical manipulation
of chunks to give alternatives:
make a loss he made an enormous loss. An attempt to free grammatical words from structural constraints- eg would, any. Expanding learner´s
lexicon Challenge the learners to master a sufficiently large lexicon. dictionary- based activities. Moderately acompetent users of english should handle around 2000 most common lexical items Learning
strategies Class time should be evoted to strategy training for dealing with unknow lexical items. Class time is better spent raising awareness and encouraging effective recording of patterns. Suggestions for
Teaching Lexically * Because the lexicon is far too vast to “teach”, the Lexical Approach puts the emphasis on getting students to notice lexical chunks during their exposure to English. This is called “noticing” or “consciousness raising” and is considered the key for language acquisition. The teacher´s role is to help the students develop their “noticing” skill, or in other words, to turn input (language exposure) into intake (language acquisition). Hopefully, the development of the students noticing ability will go beyond the classroom and occur whenever they encounter the language. * Dont teach vocabulary out of context. Try to avoid teaching isolated words. Either collocate them (e.g., bank account, savings account, etc.) or include the word in a realistic structure (Id like to open an account). * With semi-fixed expressions, give other examples of similar words/chunks that are also used in that structure. Generally, dont give more than five examples and try to relate the words in terms of function and/or meaning. * Dont spend too much time on fixed expressions, particularly idiomatic ones, as they are normally not used that frequently (When is the last time you heard someone say “Hes always blowing his own trumpet”?) and they do little to develop strategies for processing other structures (Hes always blowing his own nose???”). * Get some collocation dictionaries and encourage students to use them when using classroom material (i.e. “Go through the reading and find the collocations that go with the following words…” “Now use the collocation dictionaries and find other similar collocations for those words.”).
* Develop or adapt exercises to get students to notice collocations and other lexical chunks in their course material. After doing reading or listening comprehension have students go over the text/tapescript and pick our certain topic-related or function-based lexical chunks.
* Use Teacher Talking Time to give students practice in noticing lexical items in your speech. QUESTIONS???? Grammaticalised
lexis but also Key principles There is a distinction between vocabulary, traditionally thought to be constituted of single items, and lexis, which includes not only the single words but also the word combinations that we store in our mental lexicons. Lexical approach advocates argue that language consists of meaningful chunks that, when combined, produce continuous coherent text, and only a minority of spoken sentences are entirely novel creations. It is a language teaching method published by Michael Lewis 1993. Bases on the insight of the language lexicon Language consists of lexical items (single word or multi-word items) Very basically, a lexical approach to teaching means the primary focus is on helping students acquire vocabulary. This movement away from a grammar- based syllabus largely began in 1993 with the publication of the lexical approach by Michael Lewis. It was called an approach to differentiate it from a method. In english language teaching, methods are systems for structuring lesson while approches are less concerned with how the lesson is structured and more concerned with general focus of instruction. Look at this version of the introduccion. What do the parts printed in bold in square brackets
Have in common?
The principles of the lexical approach have [been around] since Michael Lewis published “the lexical apprach” [ 10 years ago ]. It seems. However, that. Many teachers and researches do not have clear idea of what the lexical approach actually (look like) (in practice). lexical approach 1-What are the goals of teacher who use the lexical approach? Is to do the focused in the variety of lexical unit The relationship between vocabulary and grammar The vocabulary learning of teaching resources. The teacher talk is the major source of learner input. 2-What is the role of the teacher? Discoverer
Data analyst What is the role of students? Organizing the technological system, providing scaffolding to help learners.
The teacher methology:
•Report. 3-What are some characteristic of the teaching/learning process? Wealth vocabulary Proficiency vocabulary overall linguistic competence 4-what is the nature of student-teacher interaction? what is the nature of student-student?
The teacher facilitates learning for students, and the relationship between them is very active for better acquisition of knowledge. 5-How are the feelings of the students dealt with?
Students actually enjoy searching for items using concordance printouts from a corpus. Make sure they are focusing on just the words near the highlighted ones and keep the task simple. 6-How is the language viewed? How is the culture view?
The language shows the central role of words and word association, and culture Feared and Celebrated. Personalized, it was supposed to take the deceased to the afterlife world. 7- What areas of language are emphasized? What language skills are emphasized?
The main idea is to achieve fluency and naturalness in communication with the acquisition of lexical segments, as they are used by native linguistic statements. 8-What is the role of the students´ native language?
Lexico potential 9-How is evaluation accomplished?
Assign comprehension questions.
Students read or listen to the text and answer the questions.
Elicit the answers (you can have students pair check before you do this). 10-How does the teacher respond to students errors?
The teacher must be patient, and a good way to get students to notice lexical approach in a text is to tell them That They Will Have to wear those chunks later in a task. The task should relate to the original text.