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Reasons for Confederation
Transcript of Reasons for Confederation
Canada Map in 1867
Names and Dates of canadian provinces entry into Canada
As you know not all of the Canadian Provinces and Territories joined together at once. It took time for Canada to become what it is today
Here is a list of the names and dates of the entry of each province and territory into Canada:
Confederation became enforced even more by some Key events in History .
Confederation wouldn't have occurred if it weren't enforced by our Fathers of Confederation. This includes John A. MacDonald, George Etienne Cartier, and George Brown. Although there were people who supported Confederation there were people who were against it as well including Antoine-Aime Dorion. Here is a video I made on the key Personalities of the Confederation.
Reasons for Confederation
Political Cartoon that relates to Confederation
This political cartoon represents confederation by
portraying the United States, Britain, and Canada as 2 adults caring for a baby (a.k.a Canada). Britain portrayed by the women
is stating that she knew that the baby could stand alone. However the United States portrayed as the man is stating that he knew that as well, but if in the case of the baby falling he would catch him.
I can infer that this means that if Canada were to fall
the United States would take over.
This map shows us which colonies in which
areas joined together to become the provinces
of Canada. And the ones that didn't
The warm colours like salmon, orange, and pink as shown represent the Canadian provinces such as Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and P.E.I
The cold colours like teal, blue, and turquoise as shown represent the British north american colonies that hadn't joined Canada in 1867
Canada West Canada East
Liberal-Conservative Party Le Parti Bleu
John A. MacDonald-leader
George Etienne Cartier
Reform Party Le Parti Rouge
(Clear Grits) (Reform Party)
Antoine Ame Dorion
July 1, 1867 Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick
1870 Manitoba, Northwest Territories
1871 British Columbia
1905 Alberta, Saskatchewan
Confederation didn't just happen over night there were specific reasons that brought our united country together
Reason Number 1
The Canadas' legislative assembly had an equal representation of people in each of the parties shown below
Parties in the legislative assembly
This resulted in political deadlocks in the assembly.
Political deadlocks occur when progress cant be made between the four parties. Each parties (the liberal-conservatives and the reform parties) of coarse wanted to vote for the option that benefited them. Solutions for this situation included bringing in the maritimes to help solve there disputes or a coalition. A coalition consists when a political party joins the opposing side temporarily to move past a deadlock. This lead to consider uniting the maritimes with the Canadas' so deadlocks wouldn't happen so often.
Reason Number 2
See! Why the dear child
can stand alone
Of coarse he can! Let go
of him Granny, if he falls
I'll catch him
Reason Number 3
Reason Number 4
Reason Number 5
The Charlottetown Conference
The Quebec Conference
The London Conference
By 1864, the maritime Colonies including New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island were considering uniting together for a number of reasons. In result of there new possibility they held a conference in Prince Edward Island known as the Charlottetown Conference. This meeting was held on September 1, 1864. When the Canadas heard of this, they decided to join regarding the future of Confederation. At the Conference however they were only observers so they put together a presentation bringing up Confederation. The thought of the Maritime Union disappeared in everyones minds instead Confederation was all they could think about. The representatives from the Canadas to present these arguments in favor of uniting were John A. MacDonald, George Etienne Cartier, and George Brown. George Brown had made some statements with reference to how this united government may be coordinated or organized. The many representatives of the maritimes were so intrigued that they scheduled another conference exactly a month later to discuss more on this birth of a new government.
The Quebec conference was held in Quebec City on October 1, 1864. All of the same colonies attended although this time including Newfoundland who were just observing alike the last Conference with the Canadas. There were many delegates that shared their ideas which all referenced to a new nation with links to Britain, however John A. MacDonald had the most opinion in the conference. In this meeting topics like Lower House based on representation by population, as well as an Upper House with representation based on regions were brought up. They discussed a Federal and a Provincial government that had specific responsibilities to cover, they also created a piece of text called The Seventy-two Resolutions or the Quebec Resolutions. To discuss more
about these topics they held the third and
final conference in London, England
The Great Coalition
In 1864 to move pass a political deadlock George Brown, leader of the Canada West Reform Party, joined temporarily with his enemies John A. MacDonald and George Etienne Cartier. This was a brave and sacrificing move for George Brown, he had to choose between becoming even more separated or uniting with the maritimes to start what we know today as the Nation of Canada.
He chose to unite with the maritimes because John A. MacDonald and George Etienne Cartier made persuasive points on why it was beneficial to them. This was called the Great Coalition.
This is a reason because it resulted in the consideration of bringing in the maritimes so the amount of political deadlocks would be limited.
The intercolonial railway
Between the Colonies there was a variety of obstacles separating them. Some of these including mountains in Gaspe and the northern part of Maine (USA). In the winters the St.Lawrence River freezes stopping water transportation and trade between Colonies.
This lead to considering an intercolonial railway. The pros to having an intercolonial railway would include the increase of trade between colonies, speed up mail delivery, and the railway could give easy access for troops in war situations for traveling.
This became a serious consideration due to the fact that The Grand Trunk Railway became bankrupt and The Western Railroad had financial problems. An intercolonial railway would not just replace the other two but it could potentially start making the colonies stronger as a whole, like uniting. This could lead to a consideration of uniting the colonies.
The Reciprocity Treaty
Starting in 1854 there was no price for trading between the British North American Colonies (such as the Maritimes, the Canadas, and the West) and the United States because of the reciprocity treaty. This encouraged trade and selling of raw materials and rural products without a price of importation and exportation known as tariffs.
However in 1865 when the States ended the reciprocity treaty, the Colonies began to think of uniting so there would be no tariffs when trading among each other. They anticipated that it would increase economic benefit.
Treat of American Expansion
The fourth reason is because their was a threat of American Expansion. In the 1860's the Northern and Southern States fought against each other mostly because of the choice of abolishment of slavery or not. The Northern states wanted to get rid of slavery but the Southern states did not.
Another reason included the Fenians, they were a group of Irish Catholics who lived in the states and wanted the British rule over Ireland to end. So they attacked the Colonies due to the distance and size of Britain.
Another reason included The Manifest Destiny. This policy states that based on the belief that all of North America should belong to The USA because they Already own Alaska and all of the area in between that
And the last reason is about the Colony of British Columbia. There was a threat of American Expansion because of the Gold Rush in 1859-1869. The American miners who came up from the US had a great influence on them.
All of these reasons contributed to a threat of american expansion, this scared the colonies. Joining together wold make them become stronger as a whole and not be as easy to over power.
= Quebec City Conference
= Charlottetown Conference
Here are the placements of the conferences located in Canada regarding the future of our Nation
Great Britain's Attitude
In the mid 1860's Great Britain attitude changed concerning the British North American Colonies. The question was, "were the colonies a benefit or a downside?" The Opinion was divided in whether to get rid of or keep the colonies.
Pros of having the Colonies Cons to having the Colonies
They were a great access for exchanging raw goods and manufacturing goods. The colonies gave Britain a chance to immigrate for reasons such as a better life, better pay, and more. This also still let these people to remain a British citizen. And the final reason is it gave Britain an advantage for war purposes for extra soldiers and weapons.
The main reason for to get rid of the Colonies was because Britain wanted the Colonies to be more independent so they could pay for there own government and more. They were too much money to be kept and they weren't providing enough to balance with what was going in.
Although, the British North American colonies were still very loyal and required their support, but Great Britain could no longer support them. This is a very big reason because this forced them to become more independent, the colonies knew that they wouldn't survive by themselves. They knew that they would have to unite if they wanted to stay strong and independent.
The London Conference was held in December of 1866. This conference lasted till February of 1867. Sixteen representatives from the Canada's, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick traveled to Britain to discuss more on the points brought up in the previous meeting. During the meeting the Maritimes were given a guarantee on an intercolonial railway connecting them to the Canada's. They modified the Seventy-two Resolutions, now known as the British North American Act. Finally on May 22, 1867, Queen Victoria declared that the nation of Canada would be created.
Thank you for Watching!