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Assessment of Learning in the Cognitive Domain
Transcript of Assessment of Learning in the Cognitive Domain
in the Cognitive Domain 0 + - = 9 8 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 c Cognitive Domain •Concerned with the intellectual objectives. Bloom describes this domain as the central point of the work of most test development; it deals with knowledge and the development of intellectual abilities and skills.
•This includes the recall or recognition of specific facts, procedural patterns, and concepts that serve in the development of intellectual abilities and skills.
Bloom's Taxonomy . Of the three learning domains, the Cognitive domain is the one being assessed commonly. The Cognitive domain was subdivided into six hierarchical levels. Preparing for Assessment of Cognitive Learning Before the teacher gives out test to be used in measuring student learning in the cognitive domain, he should first consider the following questions: ASSESSMENT OF LEARNING
IN THE COGNITIVE DOMAIN 1.Knowledge – This level of cognition includes memorizing, recognizing or recalling factual information. Objectives: list, identify, name, recite and define. 2.Comprehension – At this level of cognition, the emphasis is on organizing, describing, and interpreting concepts. Objectives: describe, interpret, explain, illustrate, summarize, restate, and defend concepts or information. 3. Application – The application level of cognition requires that the students apply the information presented, solve problems with it, and find new ways of using it. Objectives: apply, classify, demonstrate, discover, predict, show, solve, and compare. 4. Analysis – This level of taxonomy requires higher level of thinking skills such as finding underlying structures, separating the whole into components, identifying motives, and recognizing hidden meanings. Objectives: analyze, ascertain, diagram, differentiate, discriminate, examine, determine, classify, investigate, construct, and contrast. 5. Synthesis – The synthesis level raises desired outcomes to significantly higher levels of cognition. At this level, the student is expected to create an original product based on the knowledge acquired, combine the ideas presented into a new whole, or relate several areas into a consistent concept. Objectives: combine, compile, create, design, develop, expand, integrate, extend, originate, synthesize, and formulate. 6. Evaluation – The highest level of cognition in Bloom’s taxonomy is the evaluation level. At this level, the learner is expected to make thoughtful value decisions with reference to the knowledge; resolve differences and controversy; and develop personal opinions, judgments and decisions. Objectives: assess, critique, judge, appraise, contrast, evaluate, weigh, and recommend. 1. What should be tested? – Identification of the information, skills, and behaviors to be tested is the first important decision that a teacher has to take. Knowledge of what shall be tested will enable a teacher to develop an appropriate test for the purpose. The basic rule to remember, however, is that testing emphasis should parallel teaching emphasis. 2. How to gather information about what to test? – A teacher has to decide whether he should give a paper and pencil test or simple gather information through observation. Should he decide to use a paper-and-pencil test, then he has to determine what test items to construct. On the other hand, if he decides to use observation of students’ performance of the targeted skill, then he has to develop appropriate devices to use in recording his observations. Decisions on how to gather information about what to test depends on the objective or the nature or behavior to be tested. 3. How long the test should be? – Test construction to assess learning in the cognitive domain depends on the age and attention span of the students and type of questions to be used. 4. How best to prepare students for testing? – To prepare students for teaching, Airasian (1994) recommends the following measures:
• Providing learners with good instruction;
• Reviewing students before testing;
• Familiarizing students with question formats;
• Scheduling the test; and
• Providing students information about the test. Assessing Cognitive Learning The commonly used methodologies in assessment that teachers used to measure learning in the cognitive domain are objective tests and essay tests. Types of Objective Tests 1. Supply Type – Supply type items of the short-answer variety include direct questions, completions, and directed exercises. As an objective test item, a supply-type is designed to have only one correct response which the examinee “supplies” rather than select. 2. Selection Type – A selection-type item generally consists of question, an incomplete statement, or simply a direction followed by a number of response options from which the examinee must select one or more alternatives.
• Multiple Choice Items
• Alternate Response Items
• Matching Items
• Computer-Adaptive Testing 3. Short-Answer Items – A short-answer item consists of a question, an incomplete statement, or a direction to which the examinee must supply a response. Standard types of short-answer items include the direct question, completion, identification, and directed exercise. An essay question is a question, topic, or brief statement to which an examinee must construct an extended response. An essay question can be used to measure a person’s ability to make comparisons, apply principles to new situations, organize information, communicate ideas, be creative, conduct a critical study, make judgments, draw inferences, integrate knowledge and applications, summarize information, and demonstrate in-depth knowledge. The key to essay questions used to measure any or all of these abilities is the fact that examinees must produce their own extended responses, in their own words. Essay Tests Sources:
Airasian, Peter W., Assessment in the Classroom: A Concise Approach, (McGraw Hill Companies Inc., 1999)
McDonald, Mary E., Systematic Assessment of Learning Outcomes: Developing Multiple Choice Exams, (Canada: Jones and Barlett Publishers, 2002)
Priestly, Micheal, Performance Assessment in Education & Training: Alternative Techniques, (New Jersey: Educational Technology Publishing Inc., 1982)