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The Haywain Constable

A Short History of Western Art Pt 4

dan shread

on 19 January 2015

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Transcript of The Haywain Constable

John Henry Fuseli 1741–1825
Titania's Awakening 1790
Claude Lorraine
1604/5? - 1682

Seaport with the Embarkation
of the Queen of Sheba
Oil on Canvas
National Gallery
The Nightmare
Oil on canvas
Oil on Canvas
William Bake
1757 - 1827
When Morning Stars
Sang Together
When the Morning Stars Sang Together
From Illustrations to 'The Book of Job'
1825, reprinted 1874
Line engraving on paper
The Spirit of Samuel Appearing to
The conversion of Saul
William Blake’s annotations to his copy of Sir Joshua Reynolds’ Discourses on Art are among the most vigorous expressions of disgust in the history of British art. In these frenetic scribblings, the visionary Romantic outsider screamed his rage at the ghost of the Royal Academy’s first President. On the title page of the book, next to Reynolds’ name, Blake wrote bluntly that “This Man was Hired to Depress Art.” Then he warmed to his task: “Having spent the vigour my Youth & Genius under the Oppression of Sr Joshua & his Gang of Cunning Hired Knaves Without Employment & as much as could possibly be Without Bread, The Reader must Expect to Read in all my Remarks on these Books Nothing but Indignation & Resentment. While Sr Joshua was rolling in Riches, Barry was Poor & Unemploy’d except by his own Energy; Mortimer was call’d a Madman, & only Portrait Painting applauded by the Rich & Great ... Fuseli, Indignant, almost hid himself. I am hid.”

Blake hated Reynolds for encouraging the British aristocracy in its woeful attachment to the lesser genre of portraiture. His own counter-cultural heroes were men such as John Hamilton Mortimer, Henry Fuseli and James Barry, who had dedicated themselves to the production of grand narrative history paintings despite an almost total lack of patronage for such work in the British Isles. The diminutive, Swiss-born Fuseli had nearly ruined himself by opening his so-called “Milton Gallery” in London, full of unmarketable mannerist depictions of scenes from Paradise Lost. Barry had toiled unpaid, for seven whole years, on four monumental canvases for the Royal Society of Arts illustrating “the progress of human civilisation” – a group of magnificently weird pictures that can still be seen, today, in the lecture room of the RSA’s headquarters, just off the Strand. “Barry told me that while he Did that Work, he Lived on Bread & Apples,” Blake angrily noted in another of his marginalia to Reynolds’ Discourses.
Philipp Otto Runge
1777– 1810
Colour Sphere (Die Farbenkugel).
Der Morgen ("Morning", 1808),
Oil on canvas
Peter Walks
on Water
Oil on Canvas
The Hulsenbeck Children
oil on canvas
Caspar David Friedrich 1774 – 1840
Portrait of Caspar David Friedrich,
Gerhard vonKügelgen c. 1810–20
Rocky Ravine,
Oil on Canvas
The Wanderer above the
Sea of Fog
Oil on Canvas
Self Portrait
The Sea of Ice
Oil on Canvas
c. 1824
Study for The Death of Sardanapalus
oil on canvas
The Death of Sardanapalus (detail)
Study for The Death of Sardanapalus
The Death of Sardanapalus
Oil on Canvas
Ferdinand Victor Eugène Delacroix 1798 - 1863
Study for The Death of Sardanapalus
Study for The Death of Sardanapalus
Portrait by Nadar
Liberty Leading the People (1830), Louvre
Self Portrait
Oil on canvas
Portrait of a Turk in a Turban
Pastel on paper
Moroccan in Tangier 1832
Moroccan Women
Moroccan sketch book
Study for the painting Women of Algiers
Sketch for the Women of Algiers
The Women of Algiers
Oil on canvas,
Theodore Gericault
Head of a Shipwrecked Man
(study for the Raft of the Medusa)
Oil on Canvas
The raft of the Medusa
(c.1819), oil on canvas,
Paris, Louvre
Portrait of Lord Byron
Henry Fuseli - James Northcote, 1778
Thomas Cole
Lancashire 1801–1848 Catskill, New York
The Course of Empire: Destruction
Oil on canvas
Thomas Cole
View from Mount Holyoke, Northampton, Massachusetts, after a Thunderstorm—The Oxbow
Oil on canvas
Metropolitan Museum New York
The United States of America
The Hudson River School
Thomas Cole, Albert Bierstadt, Frederic Edwin Church,
Romanticism and 19th Century landscape painting
Dido Building Carthage
Oil on Canvas
National Gallery
J.M.W. Turner
John Constable 1776-1837
Frederic Edwin Church (American, 1826-1900), Niagara, 1857.
Oil on canvas,
41-1/2 x 90-1/2 inches.
Courtesy of Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.
Frederic Edwin Church (American, 1826-1900)
The Iceberg
Oil on canvas,
20 x 30 inches.
Courtesy of Carnegie Museum of Art,
Pittsburgh, PA.
John Martin 1789-1854
Francis Danby 1793-1861
Scene from A Midsummer Night's Dream 1832
size approximately 8 x 11 inches,
Oldham Art Gallery, Oldham
Francis Danby 1793-1861
The Delivery of Israel Pharaoh and his Hosts Overwhelmed in the Red Sea
Oil on Canvas
b Common, nr. Wexford, 16 Nov. 1793; d Exmouth, Devon, 10 Feb. 1861). Irish-born painter, active in England. He worked mainly in Bristol and London, but between 1830 and 1838, owing to financial and marital problems, he lived in Paris and Switzerland. His early work was naturalistic, but in the 1820s he turned to melodramatic apocalyptic paintings, such as The Delivery of Israel out of Egypt (1825, Harris Mus.
View of a Norwegian Lake before the Sun Has Dissipated the Early Morning Mist
Oil on canvas,
43.1 x 61.3 cm
The Fitzwilliam Museum
"The Deluge"
c. 1837
Snowstorm (1842; Oil on canvas, 91.5 x 122 cm)

Golding Constable's Flower Garden
oil on canvas
Ipswich Borough Council
Museums and Galleries
Golding Constable's Kitchen Garden
oil on canvas
Ipswich Borough Council
Museums and Galleries
Constable was born in East Bergholt and his father owned a mill there and at nearby Dedham. John went to school in Lavenham and Dedham.
The garden paintings reflect a period of the artist's life when his mother, Ann, had just died and his father was terminally ill.

"His mother was certainly a strong presence," said Emma Roodhouse.

"You look at the vegetable garden, but with the flower garden the skies are slightly darker.

"He kept them as his own personal pictures and they were eventually sold by his son Charles, did the rounds at auction houses and were bequeathed to Ipswich in 1955.
John Martin,
'The Coronation of Queen Victoria'
Study of Cirrus Clouds
oil on paper
10.4x 17.8 cm
c. 1821-22
Seascape Study with Rain Cloud
oil on paper
22.2 x 31.1 cm.
Cloud Study at Hampstead
Trees at Right
oil on paper
24.1x 29.9 cm
“Cloud Study,”
The Barbizon School
Théodore Rousseau,
Pierre-Étienne-Théodore Rousseau
1812, Paris, —1867, Barbizon
Mare au Crépuscule,
c. 1850
Oil on canvas
Ford Madox Brown, Work (1852–65).
Manchester Art Gallery
The moral value of work was much discussed
in the middle of the 19th century.
This painting reflects that debate.

One day, as Brown walked to his Hampstead studio,
he caught sight of a group of navvies digging a drain.

He had been reading Thomas Carlyle's Past and Present,
which discusses the nobility of labour.
It occurred to him that navvies were as worth painting
as any group of picturesque Italian peasants
who graced the walls of London art galleries.

He made these constructors of the modern world
the central focus of his painting,
surrounding them with those who do not need to work
or are deprived of meaningful work.
In contrast, on the right, Thomas Carlyle watches
as he converses with Rev. F D Maurice,
founder of the first college for working men.
These are brainworkers,
the cause of purposeful work and happiness in others.

Ford Madox Brown 1821-1893
The Stone Breakers.
1849 (desroyed during World War II).
Oil on canvas,
5 feet, 5 inches x 7 feet, 10 inches.
Gustave Courbet

This painting shows Courbet's rejection of both Romantic and Neoclassical formulas. His subject is neither historical nor allegorical, religious nor heroic. The men breaking the stones are ordinary road workers, presented almost life-size. Courbet does not idealize the struggle for existence; he simply says, "Look at this."

Courbet's detractors were sure that he was causing artistic and moral decline by painting what they considered unpleasant and trivial subjects on a grand scale. They accused him of raising a "cult of ugliness" against cherished concepts of Beauty and the Ideal. Realism was perceived as nothing less than the enemy of art, and many believed that photography was the source and the sponsor of this disaster.

source www.faculty.etsu.edu
Young Stone Breaker
Black crayon on thin off-white wove paper laid down on thin, heavily discoloured wove paper

Ashmolean Museum Oxford
Portrait by Nadar
Self Portrait
Jean-Francois Millet
The Walk to Work
(Le Depart pour le Travail)
1851 (150 Kb);
Oil on canvas,
55.5 x 46 cm (21 7/8 x 18 1/8 in)
Haystacks: Autumn,
Noonday Rest
Pastel and black conté crayon
on buff wove paper
29.2 x 41.9 cm (11 1/2 x 16 1/2 in.)
Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
Jean François Millet,
'The Gleaners', About 1855-1856.
Millet is best known for his images of peasants working the land. Although his depictions of rural labour are bleak, they have a conscious elegiac quality at a time when traditional French peasant life was in retreat. This etching shows three women picking up the ears of corn missed by the harvesters. Millet's painting of the same subject is in the Musée d'Orsay, Paris.
The Potato Harvest
Oil on Canvas
After moving from Paris to the village of Barbizon on the edge of the Fontainebleau forest in 1851, Millet devoted himself to portraying the lives of his neighbors. Some critics interpreted his paintings of working farmers as a critique of the injustices inherent in the social conditions of his time. Others have seen his work as a representation of man's harmonious union with nature.
Plein Air

Camille Pissaro

Les chataigniers a Osny
(The Chestnut Trees at Osny)
c. 1873
Oil on canvas,
65 x 81 cm (25 5/8 x 31 7/8"); Private collection, New Jersey
Peasant Girl Drinking her Coffee
Oil on canvas
Camille Pissarro and his wife, Julie Vellay, 1877
Road to Versailles at
Oil on Canvas
The Marketplace,
Gouache on paper,
31 3/4 x 25 1/2 in. (80.6 x 64.8 cm).
Courtesy of The
Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Private collection,
Oil on Canvas
Hay Harvest at Éragny,
Oil on canvas
Nat Gallery of Canada
Monet in his studio 1923
Oil on Canvas
Claude Monet

Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres
Roger Delivering Angelica
Oil on Canvas
The Grande Odalisque
Oil on Canvas

The Valpinçon Bather
(Fr: La Grande Baigneuse)
Oil on Canvas
Self Portrait at Twenty Four
Oil on Canvas
George Bingham
Fur traders descending the Missouri
Oil on Canvas
Metropolitan Museum of Art
New York
Bingham named the work as French trader – half-breed son but, when the painting was acquired by the American Union of Artists, they changed its name to Fur traders descending the Missouri.
The painter was reading Tennyson's The Princess while working on the painting, and his thoughts echo the poet's as expressed in the well-known song in Part IV:

Tears, idle tears, I know not what they mean.
Tears from the depth of some divine despair
Rise in the heart, and gather to the eyes,
In looking on the happy Autumn-fields,
And thinking on the days that are no more.

Millais, visited Tennyson in November 1854 and "his experience" of helping sweep up and burn dead leaves" at the poet's home inspired the painting.
Sir John Everett Millais
Bt PRA (1829-96)

Autumn Leaves
Oil on Canvas
Winslow Homer 1836-1910
Hound and Hunter
Oil on Canvas
Eight Bells
Oil on Canvas
Fog Warning
Oil on Canvas

Song of the Lark,
oil on canvas.
Chrysler Museum of Art
Camp Fire
Oil on Canvas
Home Ranch
Oil on Canvas
Thomas Eakins
Self Portrait
Eakins took a keen interest in the new technologies of motion photography, a field in which he is now seen as an innovator. Eakins was a controversial figure whose work received little by way of official recognition during his lifetime. Since his death, he has been celebrated by American art historians as "the strongest, most profound realist in nineteenth-and early-twentieth-century American art"
The Biglin Brothers Turning the Stake
Oil on Canvas
Baseball Players Practicing
The Agnew Clinic,
Oil on canvas
Museum of Art Philadelphia PA
Madame Moitessier
Oil on Canvas
‘Self Portrait’,
Musée du Louvre,
Odalisque and slave
Oil on Canvas
Born in 1775, Turner was the son of a barber whose London establishment catered to the city's artistic and literary elite. Turner grew to manhood observing Britain's "beautiful people" and quite early in his career began selling paintings to members of the nobility. Yet he never painted portraits of these grandees, as had Sir Joshua Reynolds and Thomas Gainsborough, the leading artists during his youth. Turner's forte was landscape painting and, just as he started to depict the coastline of England and the mountains of Wales on his canvases during the 1790s, the great cultural flowering of Romanticism began. Turner, who loved tramping about the rolling hills and moors of his native land, was the perfect painter for a generation which sought inspiration from nature.

Landscape of Life
by James Hamilton
Published by Random House
461 pages, 2003

Reviewed by Ed Voves July 2003
Turner was an artistic revolutionary of the greatest distinction, as shown by his monumental 1812 work "Snow Storm: Hannibal and His Army Crossing the Alps." In this contrasting study of dark clouds and a beckoning, sunny valley, Hannibal and his men hardly figured at all. Turner's real subject, the obsession of his life, was light itself.
Turner's paintings were personal, often political, statements. He was a staunch defender of human rights and his searing presentation of an actual event from the slave trade, "Slavers Throwing Overboard the Dead and Dying: Typhoon Coming On" (1840), is an icon in the struggle for liberty. The painting, now in the Boston Museum of Art, confronts the viewer with a blood red sky and a host of small black hands, bound in chains, reaching upward from the surging sea into which they had been tossed to lighten the load of the tempest battered ship.

Landscape of Life
by James Hamilton
Published by Random House
461 pages, 2003

Reviewed by Ed Voves July 2003
News researcher for the Philadelphia Inquirer and the Philadelphia Daily News.
The Haywain
Oil on canvas
National Gallery
The painting depicts a
rural scene on the
River Stour in Suffolk
Although The Hay Wain is revered today as one of the greatest British paintings, when it was originally exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1821 (under the title Landscape: Noon), it failed to find a buyer. It was considerably better received in France where it was praised by Théodore Géricault. The painting caused a sensation when it was exhibited with other works by Constable at the 1824 Paris Salon (it has been suggested that the inclusion of Constable's paintings in the exhibition were a tribute to Géricault, who died early that year). In that exhibition, The Hay Wain was singled out for a gold medal awarded by Charles X of France, a cast of which is incorporated into the picture's frame. The works by Constable in the exhibition inspired a new generation of French painters, including Eugène Delacroix.
Jules Bastien-Lepage
1848 – 1884

The Wood Gatherer
Oil on canvas
The Haymakers
Oil on canvas
Portrait of Sarah Bernhardt
Oil on Canvas
Caricature of Jules Didier
Haystack Series

Auguste Rodin

The Burghers of Calais (1884–ca. 1889)

Victoria Tower Gardens,

Monument to Balzac


“I smell brimstone,” Ingres used to say, whenever Delacroix walked into the room

Turner, who at just five-foot-four-inches, was hobbit-like in size,
was the artistic giant of the early 19th century. The heir of the
classic traditions of European art, he was regarded by many as
a madman who painted with "soapsuds and whitewash."

Landscape of Life
by James Hamilton
Published by Random House
461 pages, 2003

Reviewed by Ed Voves July 2003
Richard Dadd
Richard Dadd. The painting he is working on is Contradiction: Oberon and Titania (1854/1858)

Contradiction: Oberon and Titinias
Washington Crossing the Delaware
Oil on canvas
149 x 255 in. (378.5 x 647.7 cm)
The Metropolitan Museum of Art
New York
Emanuel Leutze 1816–1868
(American, Schwäbisch Gmünd -Washington, D.C.)
The Painter's Studio; A Real Allegory
Oil on canvas
11' 10 1/4" x 19' 7 1/2" (361 x 598 cm)
Musee d'Orsay, Paris
Madame Charlotte du Val d’Ognes
Oil on canvas
60 x 50 cm
Metropolitan Museum of Art
Constance-Marie Charpentier
1767 Paris, France – August 3, 1849
Carle Vernet 1758-1836.
Delpech’s Lithographic Print Shop,
ca. 1818.
Nicolas Toussaint Charlet
The Lithographic
Drawings Dealer
Honore Daumier 1808-1879
Photograph by Nadar
The brutal results of a massacre by
the French government
Rue Transnonain, le 15 Avril 1834
Soldier of the Imperial Guard
Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot

The Mill of Saint-Nicolas-les-Arraz
Oil on canvas
Charles-François Daubigny
1817 – 1878
Boats on the Oise
Oil on canvas
Sluice-gate at Optevoz (Isére)
Oil on canvas
Musée du Louvre
48 x 73 cm
Lithography was invented in 1798 by Alois Senefelder in Munich. It was the first entirely new printing process to be discovered since the fifteenth century.
Ossian receiving the Ghosts of the French Heroes
circa 1801
oil on canvas
Anne-Louis Girodet
Ossian is the narrator and purported author of a cycle of epic poems published by the Scottish poet James Macpherson from 1760. Macpherson claimed to have collected word-of-mouth material in the Scots Gaelic said to be from ancient sources, and that the work was his translation of that material. Ossian is based on Oisín, son of Finn or Fionn mac Cumhaill, anglicised to Finn McCool, a character from Irish mythology. Contemporary critics were divided in their view of the work's authenticity, but the consensus since is that Macpherson framed the poems himself, based on old folk tales he had collected, and that "Ossian" is, in the words of Thomas Curley, "the most successful literary falsehood in modern history.
"The work was internationally popular, translated into all the literary languages of Europe and was influential both in the development of the Romantic movement and the Gaelic revival. "The poems achieved international success. Napoleon and Thomas Jefferson were great fans. They were proclaimed as a Celtic equivalent of the Classical writers such as Homer
Many writers were influenced by the works, including the young Walter Scott, and painters and composers chose Ossianic subjects.

In the German-speaking states Michael Denis made the first full translation in 1768, inspiring the proto-nationalist poets Klopstock and Goethe, whose own German translation of a portion of Macpherson's work figures prominently in a climactic scene of The Sorrows of Young Werther (1774).
James Macpherson
by George Romney
Self-portrait (1824),
drawing in pencil and conté crayon, Musée des Beaux-Arts, Orléans, France.
A pupil of
Jacques-Louis David,
Napoleon brought a copy of "The Poems of Ossian" to Moscow and also commissioned Ingres to paint The Dream of Ossian
Troubador Style
Ossian's Dream
Oil on canvas
348 × 275 cm
Musée Ingres
The play Ossian, ou Les bardes by Le Sueur was a sell-out at the Paris Opera in 1804, and transformed his career. This led to its influence on Napoleon and Girodet's 1805 painting Ossian receiving the Ghosts of the French Heroes
Self-Portrait at Seventy Eight
"It's the whole world coming to me to be painted", he declared, "on the right, all the shareholders, by that I mean friends, fellow workers, art lovers. On the left is the other world of everyday life, the masses, wretchedness, poverty, wealth, the exploited and the exploiters, people who make a living from death".
In the first group, those on the right, we can recognise the bearded profile of the art collector Alfred Bruyas, and behind him, facing us, the philosopher Proudhon. The critic Champfleury is seated on a stool, while Baudelaire is absorbed in a book. The couple in the foreground personify art lovers, and near the window, two lovers represent free love.
On the side of "everyday life", we find a priest, a merchant, a hunter who somewhat resembles Napoleon III, and even an unemployed worker and a beggar girl symbolising poverty. We can also see the guitar, the dagger and the hat, which, together with the male model, condemn traditional academic art.
In this vast allegory, truly a manifesto painting, each figure has a different meaning. And in the middle of all this stands Courbet himself, flanked by benevolent figures: a female muse, naked like the Truth, a child and a cat. In the centre, the painter presents himself as a mediator. Courbet thus affirms the artist's role in society in an enormous scene on the scale of a history painting.
...the greater the contrast the greater
the effect. Delacroix
Cattle Drinking
Oil on oak panel
78.4 cm (30.9 in). 51.8 cm (20.4 in).
Pastoral Scene
Oil on wood
Museum of Fine Arts
1871 during the Paris Commune, Courbet was with the rebels,
participated in the demolition of the Vendome column, which was perceived by the people as
symbol of the triumph of bourgeois society. For this he paid with his expulsion
in Switzerland in 1873. After lengthy trials artist
sentenced to pay a huge sum for the restoration of the Vendome Column.
Creativity Courbet, along with the work of JF Millet, O. Daumier,
Barbizon school of artists was a strong movement in French art
middle of last century. Courbet's ideas were accepted by many artists
other countries. On the legacy of the master of Ornan rested and many French
masters of the next generation, such as E. Manet and the Impressionists.
In this work, "stone breaker", not preserved for our
time Courbet turned to the topic of work that glorifies man.
Hello Mr Courbet
Oil on Canvas
Joshua Commanding the Sun to Stand Still by John Martin
Oil on canvas

© Bridgeman Art Library / Ashmolean Museum, University of Oxford, UK
The Great Day of His Wrath
circa 1851
Oil on canvas
Belshazzar's Feast
Oil on canvas.
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