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New Monarchies+Exploration+Enlightenment

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Mark Twain Carroll

on 7 March 2016

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Transcript of New Monarchies+Exploration+Enlightenment

Early Monarchies
-throughout most of the Middle Ages, Spain did not really exist
-it was a collection of several independent kingdoms that shared the same culture
-over time, 2 of the kingdoms emerged as the strongest_______________+__________________
-these 2 kingdoms absorbed most of the smaller ones and were the two dominant ones in Spain by the mid 1400's
Unification of Spain
-in 1469 Castile and Aragon planned to unite through marriage
-King___________+Queen____________ were married and officially created the Kingdom of Spain
-accomplished 3 other things...
late 1492=
Superpower Spain
-the unification of Spain allowed to emerge as one of history's first world powers
-Spain was a strong imperial nation that formed many colonies in the new world
-by the 17th century, Spain began to suffer a decline from a long series of wars with France and Muslim groups
-Spain would be vulnerable by the time Napoleon came to power
-Russia emerged from the Kingdom of Moscow
-Moscow absorbed its strongest rival, Novgorod, and officially became Kingdom of Russia in 1547
-its first leader (Tsar/Czar) was Ivan IV
-Ivan IV extended the power of the national govt, expanded Russia to a territory of over 4,000,000 miles, and successfully created a multiethnic, mulifaith, and transcontinental nation
-Ivan was also known as "The Terrible"
-had fits of rage, treated the nobility with cruelty, and killed his own son
Imperial Russia
-the power in Russia waxed and waned during the 1600's
-emerged as a world power when Peter the Great became tsar in 1721
-Peter expanded Russian territory, taking much land from Sweden and Poland
-Catherine II (the Great) ruled from 1762-1796
-Catherine II enhanced the growth of Russian culture, expanded Russian territory, and set up small colonies in Alaska+California
-France had spent most of the 1500's to 1700's fighting England, conquering small countries, dealing with religious wars, and fighting England
-a great king emerged in 1643 when Louis XIV "The Sun King" took the throne
-Louis XIV ruled for 72 years and would greatly increase the power of France
-built Palace of Versailles, eliminated feudalism, centralized the French govt, and enhanced the "divine right doctrine"
-Divine Right= is a political and religious doctrine that says a monarch is subject to no earthly authority, deriving the right to rule directly from the will of God

-France also colonized the new world during the 17th and 18th Century, taking land in the modern-day Caribbean, Canada, and western US
-started in the early 15th century and continued into the 17th century during which Europeans explored Africa, the Americas, Asia and Oceania
-started because the fall of Byzantine Empire cut off trade routes between Europe and Asia
-going by land from Europe to Asia took a very long time (6 months)
-Ottoman Turks attacked European merchants crossing the Middle East
-Euros needed a new route to Asia
-this time period, 1500's-1700's is an important time in world history
-the Renaissance and Age of Exploration occur at the same time modern European countries (France, Spain, Portugal, Russia, Poland, Austria, Sweden, Netherlands, Great Britain) are starting to form
-Europe becomes the wealthiest and most powerful continent on Earth
-historians consider this time period the bridge between the Middle Ages and early modern Europe
Finding a Water Route
-medieval explorer Marco Polo was the first man to take a land route to China in 1295
-_______________was the first to start exploring the possibility of a water route to Asia
-started sailing down the African coast in 1418, but no one knew how far down Africa went
-explorers had a hard time finding money for their journeys because European kings+queens considered exploration a risky investment
-this changed with Prince Henry the Navigator
Prince Henry
-born in Portugal in the late 1300's
-younger son of the Portuguese king+queen so he would not become king
-turned his interest toward exploration, discovery, navigation, and sailing
-was the leader of the Templars in Portugal
-used Templar and royal family money to set up a school for explorers
-Henry and fellow explorer enthusiasts came up with new ways of navigation and invented several instruments to help with exploring
-2 inventions were the __________+____________
Portuguese+Spanish Exploration

Portugal, 1488=Bartholomew Dias make it to Cape of Good Hope (southern tip of Africa)

Spain, 1492=Christopher Columbus makes it to the Caribbean "discovers" the New World

Portugal, 1492=Vasco De Gama sails around Africa into the Indian Ocean and makes a complete water route to Asia

Portugal, 1500=colonize Brazil

Spain, 1522=Ferdinand Magellan sails around the world

Spain, 1500-1540=Conquistadors colonize Central+South America
-Spain and Portugal were the first 2 countries to engage major explorations
-soldiers, explorers, and adventurers at the service of the Spanish Empire and Portuguese Empire

-colonized much of the world for Spain and Portugal in the 15th, 16th, and 17th centuries

-professional warriors who used European tactics, firearms, combat dogs, and cavalry

-conquistadors were NOT in the military sometimes used slaves+native people

-Catholic clergy often held positions of authority among the conquistadors
Cortes and the Aztecs
-a Spanish Conquistador who led an expedition that caused the fall of the Aztec Empire and brought large portions of Mexico under the rule of Spain

-was originally the governor of Cuba, sent on expedition to Mexico in 1519 with only 300 men

-was able to gather local tribes as his allies because the warlike Aztecs were hated by everyone around them

Siege of Tenochtitlan
-Cortes returned in 1520 with and army of 1300 Spanish and 200,000 Native allies

-Tenochtitlan had 300,000 warriors and 300,000 civilians defending the city

-the siege lasted 80 days

-the Aztecs were overwhelmed by the superior Spanish weapons+a smallpox outbreak

Pizzaro and the Incas
-Francisco Pizzaro was born in Spain and became governor of Panama in 1513

-was awarded the title on conquistador and went out to gain Peru in 1532 with 300 men

-ambushed the Inca king, Atahualpa, and his guards at the Inca holy city of Cajamarca

-Inca were unprepared to deal with the Spanish guns and 2000 Inca were killed, only 5 Spanish

-Atahualpa was taken hostage
-Atahualpa was forced to fill a 22 foot room with gold, and two 22 foot rooms with silver
-Atahualpa delivered on his promise but was executed by Pizzaro soon afterward
-Spanish then captured the Inca capital of Cuzco
-brought about the end of the last great Native American empire
-Colonialism is the establishment, exploitation, maintenance, acquisition and expansion of colonies in one territory by people from another territory
-Colonialism is a set of unequal relationships between the colony and between the colonists and the indigenous population
-Early dominated by Spain+Portugal during the 1400-1600s
-Later dominated by England+France during the 1600-1800s
-a cultural movement of intellectuals in the 17th and 18th centuries
-began first in Europe and later in the American colonies
-purpose was to reform the way of thinking using reason to challenge tradition and faith
-started somewhere between 1650 and 1700 due to three major philosophers+scientists
John Locke
-born in England in 1632

-belief in a strong separation of Church and State

-early promoter of religious tolerance and freedom of worship

-was disgusted by 2 things...

Social Contract
-backbone of Locke's political beliefs

1. Human nature is characterized by reason and tolerance
2. Human nature says en are allowed to be selfish
3. All people are equal and independent
4. Everyone has a natural right to defend his life, health, liberty, or possessions
5. Government powers should be separated
6. Revolution is not only a right but an obligation in some circumstances

-greatly influenced who/what?
Isaac Newton
-English physicist and mathematician
-widely regarded as one of the most influential scientists of all time

-his family doctor believed Newton had Asperger Syndrome
-Aspergers is a form of autism that is characterized by significant difficulties in social interactionand repetitive patterns of behavior and interests
-it differs from other autism disorders because language and reasoning abilities develop normally

-one of the original inventors of calculus
-formulated the laws of motion+gravity
-discovered how light creates color...prism
-born as Francois-Marie Arouet

-French writer, historian, and philosopher known for his sharp wit+sarcasm

-attacked the Catholic church, advocated freedom of religion, freedom of speech+press, and the separation of church and state

-highly outspoken+criticized intolerance, religion, and the French institutions of his day
Enlightened Absolutism
-many European kings+queens were also influenced by the ideas of the Enlightenment

-they tended to allow religious freedom, freedom of speech and the press, and the right to hold private property

-most fostered the arts, sciences, and education

-major nations that were ruled by "enlightened monarchs" included: Spain, France, Portugal, Sweden, Russia, Austria, and England
Impact of the Cultural Movements
-historians have a hard time analyzing the effect of the Enlightenment
-it affected many different people in countless ways

-historian Immanuel Kent says it best, "freedom to use one's own intelligence."

-break through in the ending of religious+political persecution

-increase in scientific studies, challenging of religion+government, and new thought on political freedom for the individual
Upheaval in France
-philosophers and thinkers met+debated social and political beliefs in "salons"

-salons were public meeting houses for intellectuals to meet, eat, drink, and debate

-ideas that would spark the French Revolution originated among the people in salons

-failure of the French king to prevent economic failure+suffering among the poor led to a lose of faith in the monarchy

-actions of the__________________inspired the French people
-also believed in the value of property

-Locke believed property is created by the application of labor...you should be rewarded for work, and that reward is yours to keep

-property rights precedes government authority

-government cannot "dispose of the estates of the subjects arbitrarily"

-what does that mean?
-was a versatile writer

-produced works in almost every literary form, including plays, poems, novels, essays, and historical and scientific works

-he wrote more than 20,000 letters and more than 2,000 books and pamphlets
-the time period of 1450-1800 brings about massive change in European society

-several major cultural movements occurred simultaneously

1. Renaissance

2. Protestant Reformation

3. Age of Discovery

4. Scientific Revolution

5. Enlightenment

-the most dramatic change was to come in France...
-English political philosopher

-most famous work of literature is "The Leviathan"

-Hobbes believed a strong central authority was needed to avoid the evil of anarchy and civil war

-people should have rights, but some rights must be sacrificed for a strong government to have power...strong governments prevent suffering
-Hobbes believed all individuals in society should cede some rights for the sake of protection

-people are the creators of their own governments

-if their govts. are corrupt, the people cannot resist it because they are the ones who made it that way
-Prussia started as a region in the northeast part of the HRE

-the HRE countries in the northeast were so closely allied that, over time, they were considered one country...Prussia

-Prussia's closest ally was their neighbor...a country called Brandenburg

-other member states of the HRE began to combine into larger countries too...for 2 main reasons

1. Royal marriages between the HRE countries

2. Keep up with the rest of the growing countries in Europe (Spain, Great Britain, Russia, Austria-Hungary, and France)

-by the 1500's the HRE had 3 large countries in it...Prussia,
Brandenburg, and Austria
-the leader of Prussia died in 1618 without a male heir

-the countries of Prussia and Brandenburg were then forced to combine due to a royal marriage

-new country was known as "Brandenburg-Prussia" but was simply called Prussia by 1640

-made up the northern half of the HRE and promised to protect the little countries in the south

-Prussia achieved "Great Power" status under the leadership of King Frederick II (the Great)
Frederick the Great
-Frederick the Great ruled from 1740-1786

-had 3 major accomplishments

1. reorganized and revamped the Prussian military

2. supported art, science, and education amongst his people

3. led Prussia to victory in the 7 Years War against France, Russia, Sweden, and Austria

-Prussia was one of the most powerful countries in Europe at the time of his death and completely dominated the smaller countries of the HRE
-Aztecs let Cortes and his men into the capital city of Tenochtitlan because they wanted to avoid a fight

-Cortes was able to take the Aztec leader Montezuma hostage and ruled the city through him

-Aztecs soon rebelled, Montezuma was killed by the Spanish as they were retreating from the city

-860 Spanish+20,000 Native allies died

-100,000 warriors+100,000 civilians died

-marked the end of Aztec power and the beginning of Spanish dominance in Central America

-England, Scotland, and Wales all existed as independent countries on the island of Great Britain

-Ireland also was independent, but struggled with small, internal conflicts

-England emerged as the most powerful in the Middle Ages when they conquered Wales in 1284

-England engaged a series of wars with Scotland, Ireland, and France from 1200-1600 in attempt assert dominance
-the Tudor Dynasty of English royalty emerged with King Edward I in 1300

-the Tudors would make up some of England's most influential and powerful monarchs...Henry VIII, Elizabeth, William of Orange, Edward III

-the Tudors lead England through the Renaissance, Reformation, New World exploration+colonization, and turned England into a major power
English Influence Expands
-England has always wanted to control the entirety of the islands of Britain and Ireland

-Wales had already been conquered

-Scotland and Ireland were regularly invaded by England between 1300-1700

-England was not able to fully conquer either country...but Ireland and Scotland could not fully expel the English from their lands

-England was by far the dominant nation on the islands by 1600
-in Britain+Ireland the combination of religious differences, ethnic tension, and political disagreements came to a head by 1639

-violence finally broke out when Charles I became king of England...he had claims to the thrones of Scotland and Ireland too

-Ireland began a massive rebellion against English influence...Irish Confederacy vs English Parliament

-Scotland entered a civil war over whether or not to support Charles I...Scottish Royalists vs Scottish Parliament/English Parliament

-England began a civil war over whether the king or Parliament should hold more power...English Royalists vs English Parliament

-the wars eventually ended in 1651

-the English Parliament Army...led by Oliver Cromwell...was ultimately victorious

-Cromwell violently ended the rebellions in Scotland+Ireland

-crushed the Royalists forces in England

-ordered the execution of Charles I

-211,000 people died in the Wars of the 3 Kingdoms
Restoration, Unification, and Dominance
-England brought back the monarchy when they named Charles II king...

...but Parliament was now officially in charge

-England became a constitutional monarchy

-in 1707 Scotland was officially absorbed by England and the country was renamed Great Britain

-Ireland was officially absorbed in 1800

-Great Britain would continue to grow into one of the most powerful nations of all time
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