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Anatomy and Physiology 2016

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Margarita Almeida

on 14 September 2018

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Transcript of Anatomy and Physiology 2016

Anatomy and Physiology

Thoracic and Abdominopelvic Membranes:

1. The thoracic cavity is lined with
; the parietal pleura lines the cavities while the visceral pleura covers the lungs. A thin layer of serous fluid separates the two layers.
2. The heart is surrounded by
. The visceral pericardium covers the heart and the parietal pericardium makes up an outer sac. Serous fluid separates the two layers.
lines the abdominopelvic cavity; a parietal peritoneum lines the wall while visceral peritoneum covers the organs.

The dorsal cavity can be divided into the cranial cavity and vertebral canal.
The ventral cavity is made up of a thoracic cavity and an abdominopelvic cavity, separated by the diaphragm.
1) The mediastinum divides the thorax into right and left halves.
2) The abdominopelvic cavity can be divided into the abdominal cavity and the pelvic cavity.
Smaller cavities within the head include the oral cavity, nasal cavity, orbital cavities, and middle ear cavities.

The human body depens on tha availability of:

Organ systems depend on the availability of the following:
a. Water (required for metabolic reactions, for transportation of substances, for temperature regulation)
b. Food (nutrients needed to supply energy and raw materials for building new living matter)
c. Oxygen (used in releasing energy from nutrients)
d. Heat (metabolism; its presence governs the rate at which reactions occur)
e. Pressure (force required to facilitate movement of air or fluids).

R. Hypochondriac - right, upper 1/3; gallbladder, liver, r. kidney

Epigastric - Upper, central 1/3; liver, stomach, pancreas, duodenum

L. Hypochondriac - left, upper 1/3; spleen, colon, liver, l. kidney, small intestine

R. Lumbar - right, lateral 1/3; cecum, ascending colon, liver, r. kidney, small intestine

Umbilical - center; umbilicus (navel) is located here; jejunum, ileum, duodenum, colon, kidneys, major abdominal vessels

L. Lumbar - left, lateral 1/3; descending colon, l. kidney, small intestine

R. Iliac (inguinal) - right, lower 1/3; appendix, cecum, small intestine

Hypogastric (pubic) - lower, center 1/3; urinary bladder, small intestine, sigmoid colon, female reproductive organs

L. Iliac (inguinal) - left, lower 1/3; small intestine, descending colon, sigmoid colon

Body Regions
1. The abdominal area can be divided into nine regions.


Anatomical Terminology
Relative Positions:
1. Terms of relative position are used to describe the location of a part relative to another part.
2. Terms of relative position include: superior, inferior, anterior, posterior, medial, lateral, proximal, distal, superficial (peripheral), and deep.

Structural Organization

An organ or body system consists of various organs with similar or related functions
- work together to accomplish a common purpose

There are 11 major systems of the body

Organ (Body) System Level

Levels of Organization

The human body is the sum of its parts. The body can be studied at a variety of levels of organization.

Organs in Abdominal Regions

To facilitate its study, the abdominopelvic region has been divided into regions and quadrants

The four quadrants:
right and left upper quadrants
right and left lower quadrants

Abdominopelvic Region

Pericardial, Pleural, Peritoneal

Figure 1.10

Figure 1.5

Terms to locate structures and regions - anatomical position:

Superior (cranial, cephalic)
Inferior (caudal)
Anterior (ventral)
Posterior (dorsal)
External (superficial)
Internal (deep)

Directional Terms

Oral cavity (mouth)

Nasal cavity

Orbital cavities

Middle ear cavities

Synovial (joint) cavities

Other Cavities

Gross Anatomy

Body planes and sections
The human regions

An organ - a group of 2 or more tissue types
- one or more primary tissues and several secondary tissues
Example: the stomach

Primary tissue - inside epithelial lining involved with secretion & absorption

Secondary tissues - connective, vascular, nervous, and muscle tissues

Organ Level

Tissue - a group of similar cells that perform a common function

4 major types of tissues:
- Epithelial (epithelium)
- Connective
- Muscle
- Nervous


Tissue Level

Cell - composed of organelles and cytoplasm surrounded by a plasma membrane

Human body contains many distinct types of cells
- specialized to perform specific functions

The structure of each cell type is related to its function

-Organ system
-Human organism

Structural organization from simplest to most complex.

Gross anatomy
Microscopic anatomy
Developmental anatomy
Comparative anatomy

Branches of Anatomy

Introduction to Anatomy

Other Cavities

Figure 1.11

Body Cavities

Figure 1.9

Body Cavities:
The body can be divided into an appendicular portion (upper and lower limbs) and an axial portion (head, neck, and trunk), which includes a dorsal and a ventral cavity. Organs within these cavities are called viscera.

(also called coronal)

(also called XS – cross section)

Body planes and sections
- cut into sections along a flat surface called a plane

Anatomy is the study of the Human body and divides in:
Physiology studies the function of the body parts.
Morphology:Studies the structure
of the human body.
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