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Anatomy and Physiology 2016
Transcript of Anatomy and Physiology 2016
Thoracic and Abdominopelvic Membranes:
1. The thoracic cavity is lined with
; the parietal pleura lines the cavities while the visceral pleura covers the lungs. A thin layer of serous fluid separates the two layers.
2. The heart is surrounded by
. The visceral pericardium covers the heart and the parietal pericardium makes up an outer sac. Serous fluid separates the two layers.
lines the abdominopelvic cavity; a parietal peritoneum lines the wall while visceral peritoneum covers the organs.
The dorsal cavity can be divided into the cranial cavity and vertebral canal.
The ventral cavity is made up of a thoracic cavity and an abdominopelvic cavity, separated by the diaphragm.
1) The mediastinum divides the thorax into right and left halves.
2) The abdominopelvic cavity can be divided into the abdominal cavity and the pelvic cavity.
Smaller cavities within the head include the oral cavity, nasal cavity, orbital cavities, and middle ear cavities.
The human body depens on tha availability of:
Organ systems depend on the availability of the following:
a. Water (required for metabolic reactions, for transportation of substances, for temperature regulation)
b. Food (nutrients needed to supply energy and raw materials for building new living matter)
c. Oxygen (used in releasing energy from nutrients)
d. Heat (metabolism; its presence governs the rate at which reactions occur)
e. Pressure (force required to facilitate movement of air or fluids).
R. Hypochondriac - right, upper 1/3; gallbladder, liver, r. kidney
Epigastric - Upper, central 1/3; liver, stomach, pancreas, duodenum
L. Hypochondriac - left, upper 1/3; spleen, colon, liver, l. kidney, small intestine
R. Lumbar - right, lateral 1/3; cecum, ascending colon, liver, r. kidney, small intestine
Umbilical - center; umbilicus (navel) is located here; jejunum, ileum, duodenum, colon, kidneys, major abdominal vessels
L. Lumbar - left, lateral 1/3; descending colon, l. kidney, small intestine
R. Iliac (inguinal) - right, lower 1/3; appendix, cecum, small intestine
Hypogastric (pubic) - lower, center 1/3; urinary bladder, small intestine, sigmoid colon, female reproductive organs
L. Iliac (inguinal) - left, lower 1/3; small intestine, descending colon, sigmoid colon
1. The abdominal area can be divided into nine regions.
HUMAN BODY REGIONS
BODY PLANES AND SECTIONS
1. Terms of relative position are used to describe the location of a part relative to another part.
2. Terms of relative position include: superior, inferior, anterior, posterior, medial, lateral, proximal, distal, superficial (peripheral), and deep.
An organ or body system consists of various organs with similar or related functions
- work together to accomplish a common purpose
There are 11 major systems of the body
Organ (Body) System Level
Levels of Organization
The human body is the sum of its parts. The body can be studied at a variety of levels of organization.
Organs in Abdominal Regions
To facilitate its study, the abdominopelvic region has been divided into regions and quadrants
The four quadrants:
right and left upper quadrants
right and left lower quadrants
Pericardial, Pleural, Peritoneal
Terms to locate structures and regions - anatomical position:
Superior (cranial, cephalic)
Oral cavity (mouth)
Middle ear cavities
Synovial (joint) cavities
Body planes and sections
The human regions
An organ - a group of 2 or more tissue types
- one or more primary tissues and several secondary tissues
Example: the stomach
Primary tissue - inside epithelial lining involved with secretion & absorption
Secondary tissues - connective, vascular, nervous, and muscle tissues
Tissue - a group of similar cells that perform a common function
4 major types of tissues:
- Epithelial (epithelium)
Cell - composed of organelles and cytoplasm surrounded by a plasma membrane
Human body contains many distinct types of cells
- specialized to perform specific functions
The structure of each cell type is related to its function
Structural organization from simplest to most complex.
Branches of Anatomy
Introduction to Anatomy
The body can be divided into an appendicular portion (upper and lower limbs) and an axial portion (head, neck, and trunk), which includes a dorsal and a ventral cavity. Organs within these cavities are called viscera.
(also called coronal)
(also called XS – cross section)
Body planes and sections
- cut into sections along a flat surface called a plane
Anatomy is the study of the Human body and divides in:
Physiology studies the function of the body parts.
Morphology:Studies the structure
of the human body.