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Literary devices

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latifa adeli

on 8 January 2013

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Transcript of Literary devices

photo credit Nasa / Goddard Space Flight Center / Reto Stöckli Literary devices Literary Devices Metaphor Hyperbole Pun Pun – is the use of a word with a certain meaning in a different context sometimes referred to as a play on words. It is used in a humorous way. When you mention a part of something that has come to symbolize or represent something larger. Simile A simile is the comparison of two similar things using like or as. Oxymoron Oxymoron: An Oxymoron is when a phrase or sentence contains two contradictory terms. The comparison between two things without using “like” and “as.” “I am a rock” “I am an island” The poet uses a metaphor “I am a rock” and he is comparing himself to the rock is a solid and hard thing and does not have any feeling. He wants to be like a non-feeling rock and to be isolated from society.
He compares himself to an island. He wants to be like an island, because islands are isolated and not much happens on many of them. Some islands are so isolated that no-one even knows that they are there. An island is something without emotion. “An island never cries.” an exaggeration that is so obvious that it's not believed, but it is meant to emphasize something. That guy must weigh a ton. Obviously, the person mentioned doesn't weigh a ton, but the statement emphasizes that he is a very large person. Example: A horse is a very stable animal. Stable can mean “solid, consistent, reliable.”
It can also mean a place where you keep animals, like horses, overnight. (“There were 6 stables in the barn.”) The pun implies that the horse is a consistent, reliable animal, but, because it's a horse, we know it lives in a stable, so the statement has a double meaning. Synecdoche Example: “All hands on deck” Literally, it would mean, perhaps, putting hands down onto a deck, but “hand” represents an entire person and hands represents an entire group of people. Or “Learn your ABCs.” ABCs represents the whole of learning your alphabet and learning to read and write. "Good coffee is like friendship It means that a good friendship is rich, warm and strong . For example,” “bitter sweet,” “Jumbo shrimp,”
Certainly, "jumbo" and "shrimp" are contradictory statements. However, that is merely an introductory since a shrimp can certainly be jumbo sized in comparison to other smaller shrimp. Apostrophe A figure of speech including for the situation where words are spoken to some absent or non-living thing as if that absent or non-living thing could understand the words addressed to it. For example: “O stone! O stone! Heart of Man, made God!” is an example of Apostrophe. A great stone is being addressed by a person as if it too, were a person and could understand the speaker. Metonymy Metonymy is a figure of speech where a name and/or concept of one thing is replaced with the name of something that is closely associated with it. Another example is, “The White House asked the television networks for air time on Monday night,” where 'The White House' is used to mean the leadership of the US Government. An example is, “When he got divorced, he hit the bottle.” The Metonymy is 'the bottle,' which is used in place of the concept of excessive drinking of alcoholic beverages. The meaning of the phrase is that he started drinking alcoholic beverages heavily or that he became an alcoholic. Personification Personification is when non-human things or beings are given human characteristics “The moon winks at me every night.” Here the non-living moon is spoken of as if it winked like a person would. “When the sun turns traitor cold – and all the trees are shivering in naked row” (Urge For Going) The sun is given a human quality, that of being “traitor cold” and the trees are personified as if they were humans “shivering in naked row.” Alliteration Alliteration is the repetition of sounds in nearby words, usually involving the first consonant sound. Two examples are, “Dressy dancing daffodils" “Six slimy slithering snakes,” These are examples of alliteration because the three words begin with "D" in the first case and with “S” in the second place. Alliteration is similar to rhyming and adds impact by giving a rhythm to the phrase. Allusion An allusion is a reference to a well- known person, place, thing, or event (historical or political) to indirectly call to mind something associated with it. For example, “He was a real Romeo with the ladies.” Romeo was a character in Shakespeare’s play, Romeo and Juliet, and was very romantic in expressing his love for Juliet and referring to someone as a 'Romeo' implies that he, too, is a very romantic person. Consonance Consonance is the repetition of the same consonant sound within words close together. For example, 'Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers,' a phrase in which the consonant sound of the first 'p' is repeated.
A Symbol is something that represents a meaning that is often greater than what is apparent from what the literal meaning of the word is. A symbol is a short, efficient way of communicating a larger idea, process, or physical entity.

For example, “Heart” is a symbol of either loyalty, generosity or love, depending on context. “They gave their hearts to the cause,” meaning they gave their loyalty to the cause. “There is a man with real heart.” speaking of a kind, generous person. He gave his heart to her,” that is, he loves only her. Symbol The “Lord Of Flies” symbolizes the devil which exists in every human beings spirit. Assonance
Assonance is the repetition of vowel sounds in a word or phrase. For example: "Do you like blue?", “True, I do like Sue.” The /uː/ ("o"/"ou"/"ue" sound) is repeated within the sentence creating assonance.
An example of assonance in a sentence would be the repeated use of the /oo/ sound in the sentence, “True, I do like Sue.” Cacophony is a harsh discordant mixture of sounds, for example, the sounds that might come from a daycare centre after the children have just eaten a bunch of Halloween candy.
An example in literature from the poem Jabberwocky by Lewis Carroll. The title itself is an example of Cacophony. The first line is, “Twas brillig and the slithy toves,” with the nonsense sounds forming the Cacophony. Cacophony Paradox A Paradox is an apparently contradictory statement that, on closer examination contains or reveals a truth. For example, “I must be cruel to be kind,” seems to be contradictory, because how can cruelty be kind? But it might, for example, be used in a situation where a parent must discipline a child, which the child sees as being unkind, but the discipline may be teaching the child a lesson that will greatly benefit the child in later life.
This sentence contains two statements that are both true but in general, cannot both be true at the same time. “cruel” and “kind” which explains contradictory. Latifa Adeli
English 12
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