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Transcript of 1970-1990
Presidents during this era:
George H.W. Bush
In the previous unit students examined the events of the Civil Rights Movement. In this unit students study presidential leadership in the late 20th century, the relationship of the United States with the Middle East and the resurgence of conservatism in the United States.
Relations with the Middle East
A Conservative Resurgence
The Nixon Years
Re-Opening Relations with China
Since 1949, the U.S. had refused to recognize the People's Republic of China in the UN.
Nixon decided to travel to the People's Republic of China in 1972.
No major diplomatic agreements were made but Nixon did restore diplomatic relations with China.
Détente with the Soviet Union
Détente=relaxing of tensions
Goal was to halt the build up of nuclear weapons.
Nixon visited the USSR in 1972 and signed the Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT) to control the growth of nuclear weapons.
The Watergate Scandal
The Break In
The Cover Up
The Watergate Tapes
Impact of Watergate
Showed the system of checks and balances works.
Congress passed new laws to curb Presidential power, restoring balance between the executive and Legislative branches.
Showed that growth of Presidential power created new opportunities for abuse.
Lowered public confidence in government officials.
Reaffirmed the role of the press in uncovering government misconduct and informing the public.
The Supreme Court preserved its independence, ordering Nixon to hand over the tapes.
OPEC and the oil embargo
OPEC enforced an embargo on the US and Western European countries in response to siding with Israel in the 1973 war.
Camp David Accords
From 1948 (when Israel was established as a Jewish state) until 1977, Israel and neighboring Egypt had fought 3 wars.
Carter brought Egyptian leader Anwar el-Sadat & Israeli leader Menachem Begin to the U.S. for the Camp David Accords in 1977. Egypt agreed to recognize Isreal's right to exist and Israel agreed to leave the Sinai Peninsula.
Iranian Hostage Crisis
1953: Socialist minded Nationalist elected as head of Iranian government. In response the CIA organized a coup to put Reza Shah Pahlavi in power.
1979: The Shah fled the country and shiite cleric Ayatollah Khomeini took control.
October 1979: After the Shah entered the US for medical treatment, the staff at the US embassy in Tehran took 60 Americans hostage.
Effects of Hostage Crisis
The US imposed economic sanctions on Iran and other countries supported the US.
Tarnished America's image because of its inability to free the hostages after the year.
Hostages were freed minutes after Reagan's inauguration
Tax Cuts and Domestic Spending
Increased Military spending
By 1983 economy began to come out of recession
greater business activity
Oil prices stabilized
Federal Deficit Increased
"Peace through Strength"
"Let he who desires peace prepare for war."
The Reagan Doctrine:
Corrollary to the US policy of Communism with a goal to attempt to "roll back" Communism by aiding anti-Communist "freedom fighters."
Strategic Defense Initiative
Marines to Lebanon
Sent to Lebanon to restore order during civil war
1983-suicide bomber killed 241 Marines in barracks. As a result, troops were withdrawn.
Reagan Administration secretly sold arms to Iran as part of an exchange for hostages in Lebanon. Profits from arms sales went to anti-Communist "Contra" rebels in Nicaragua.
Sandra Day O'Conner
: Seeks to promote conservative policies based on principles of free enterprise, limited government, individual freedom, values, and a strong national defense.
National Rifle Association
: Avoided politics until the passage of the Gun Control Act of 1968.
The Moral Majority
: Composed of fundamental Christians, favored a strict interpretation of the Bible, anti-Communist and socially conservative agenda.
Contract with America
: Founded in 1994 by Newt Gingrich with a goal of restoring balance between government and its citizens.
How Might This Era be Assessed?
The policy objectives of Reaganomics were based on the theory that —
a. borrowing from foreign countries would help cover the costs of domestic programs
b. significant increases in government spending would help reduce unemployment
c. broad tax cuts and financial deregulation would promote economic expansion
d. reducing trade barriers would result in a budget surplus
In 1979 the Shah of Iran was forced into exile. The U.S. government later allowed the Shah to enter the United States for medical treatment. This perceived U.S. support for the Shah of Iran resulted in which of the following?
a. Iran attacked a U.S. military base in Asia.
b. Soviet forces began an occupation of Iran.
c. Israel demanded U.S. support for the strategic bombing of cities in Iran.
d. Revolutionaries kidnapped a group of U.S. citizens in Iran.