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Meiosis

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Christopher Caprio

on 18 January 2013

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Transcript of Meiosis

By: Christopher Caprio Meiosis Interphase I The diploid cell replicates its chromosomes, and each chromosome consists of two sister chromatids held together by a centromere. This cell is diploid because it has two sets of chromosomes, making a total of forty six. Prophase I The chromosomes coil up, spindles begin to extend from the two centrosomes within the cell, and the nucleus disappears. The homologous chromosomes come together, matching up gene-by-gene, this forms a tetrad. A process called Crossing Over could occur during prophase 1. Crossing Over is when the chromatids exchange genetic material, and could occur two or three times per pair of homologous chromosomes. The centromere of each chromosome becomes attached to a spindle fiber, which then pull the tetrads towards the equator of the spindle. From there, the homologous chromosomes are lined up side by side as tetrads. Anaphase I The homologous chromosomes separate and migrate to opposite ends of the cell. Telophase I Metaphase I The spindle begins to breakdown and the chromosomes uncoil. The cytoplasm then divides and produces two daughter cells. Each yielded cell contains half the genetic information that the original cell possessed because each daughter cell only contains one homologous chromosome from every pair. Considering this, the original diploid cell produced two haploid cells. Prophase II The nuclear envelope of the two daughter cells breaks down, and a new spindle forms from the centrioles and attaches to the centromere of each chromosome. Metaphase II The spindle fibers attach to both sides of the centromeres, and they pull the chromosomes towards the center of the cell and they line up along the equator. Anaphase II The centromere of each chromosome splits, the spindle fibers then contract and the sister chromatids migrate towards opposite poles of the cell. Telophase II The nuclei re-form, the spindles break down, and the cytoplasm divides, this process is identical to mitosis. By the end of this process, the two daughter cells produce identical cells of their own, otherwise known as four haploid cells, which were all formed from one diploid cell. Interkinesis Works Cited "Stages of Meiosis." Stages of Meiosis. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Dec. 2012. <http://highered.mcgraw- hill.com/olcweb/cgi/pluginpop.cgi?it=swf::535::535::/sites/dl/free/0072437316/120074/bio19.swf::Stages of Meiosis> "Interkinesis: Cell Cycle." Interkinesis. Http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/interkinesis. Dec.-Jan. 2012 <http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/interkinesis>. "The Phases of Meiosis." Mrrosch Pbworks. 28 Dec. 2012 <http://mrrosch.pbworks.com/f/MeiosisPhases.pdf> In interkinesis, the nuclear envelopes apppear for a brief time, and this process serves as a transition from telophase I to prophase II V Diploid Parent Cell Crossing Over Tetrads Homologous Chromosomes Two Haploid Cells Four Haploid Cells
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