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Psychology in Perspectives

From Freud to fMRIs...
by

Cathryne McNamara

on 24 August 2016

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Transcript of Psychology in Perspectives

Psychodynamic
big ideas
big names
big ways
methods
pros
cons
Learning/Behavioral
Cognitive
Humanistic
Biological
unconscious
aggressive/sexual drives
childhood experience/trauma
id, ego, superego
archetypes
Freud, Jung, Adler, Horney
case studies
explanatory/therapeutic model
universality
nature and nurture
pioneer
acknowledges instincts
deterministic (no free will)
reductionist (oversimplifies)
ignores human complexity
negative view
subjective--interpretive
lacks quantifiable/empirical data
primitive--sex and aggression
case study based
ignores the individual
external behavior/observations of
associations=stimulus-->response
reward and punishment
modeling
classical, operant, observational
Pavlov, Watson, Skinner, Bandura
animal and children experiments
greater application (school, work, law)
universality
concrete nature
objective
empirical, observable, evidence
reliability--replication possible
infer some causation
reductionist
manipulative, mind control
all nurture/no nature
deterministic
ignores internal
lacks representative population
ethicality of method
Which perspective offers the most satisfactory explanation for human behavior and thinking?
Which perspectives allow people to diffuse personal responsibility and why?
Which perspective best explains cultural similarities and differences and universals?

nature vs. nurture, heredity vs. environment, free will vs. determinism, objective vs. subjective, descriptive vs. experimental, correlational vs. causational, qualitative vs. quantitative, holism vs. reductionism, nomothetic vs. idiographic
information processors,
mind: computer analogy,
hardware (input-->output)
selective attention, memory, schemas,
language, thinking, illogic
decision making, logic, etc.
Miller, Sperling, Ebbinghaus, Loftus
human memory recall experiments,
brain imaging, case studies
some free will (soft determinism)
nature and nurture
empirical evidence, but some inference
interest in internal, as well as external
more generalizable population
more methods
technology
robotic/dehumanization
computer not the same as the mind
somewhat subjective
reductionist (computer analogy)
interpretation/inference based
unreliable memory
brain differences?
self potential and actualization, realistic self concept/construct
inherently good
Maslow, Rogers, Kelly
case studies
increased free will
positive
internal focus
heirarchy/structure
humanizes
encouraging
genes, nervous and endocrine systems, chemicals, neurotransmitters, hormones, brain structure, etc.
Sperry, Loewi, Galvani,
Broca
subjective
no empirical data
too ideal
overly accepting
still reductionist/deterministic
abstract, loose definitions
heirarchy based--limiting
experiments, brain imaging--CAT, MRI, PET, fMRI scans, animals, twin studies
empirical, observable data
biocomplexities
objective
reliance on technology
efficacy of medical treatment
deterministic
largely nature
reductionist
dehumanizes
Sociocultural
social animals, environment and culture, social self,
group memberships, attribution--explaining cause as either internal or external, compliance, conformity, norms, authority
Bandura, Sherif, Asch, Milgram
human experiments, naturalistic observations
http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=shocks-to-the-brain-improve-mathematical-abilities
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-23530408
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/technology-23709009
http://www.theguardian.com/science/2013/feb/28/brains-rats-connected-share-information?view=mobile
http://www.theguardian.com/science/2013/jul/25/false-memory-implanted-mouse-brain
http://www.spring.org.uk/2013/08/how-just-one-nights-poor-sleep-can-hurt-a-relationship.php
empirical data
ecological validity
accounts for nurture
individualistic vs. collectivistic
cross cultural
externally focused
nurture based
deindividuizes
some unethicality
ethnocentricism
deterministic
reductionist
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