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Psychology in Perspectives
Transcript of Psychology in Perspectives
id, ego, superego
Freud, Jung, Adler, Horney
nature and nurture
deterministic (no free will)
ignores human complexity
lacks quantifiable/empirical data
primitive--sex and aggression
case study based
ignores the individual
absolves personal responsibility
external behavior/observations of
reward and punishment
classical, operant, observational
Pavlov, Watson, Skinner, Bandura
animal and children experiments
application and efficacy
(school, work, law)
empirical, observable, evidence
infer some causation
manipulative, mind control
all nurture/no nature
deterministic--no free will
ignores internal thought/complexity
lacks representative population
ethicality of method
Which perspective offers the most satisfactory explanation for human behavior and thinking?
Which perspectives allow people to diffuse personal responsibility and why?
Which perspective best explains cultural similarities and differences and universals?
nature vs. nurture, heredity vs. environment, free will vs. determinism, objective vs. subjective, descriptive vs. experimental, correlational vs. causational, qualitative vs. quantitative, holism vs. reductionism, nomothetic vs. idiographic
mind: computer analogy,
selective attention, memory, schemas,
language, thinking, illogic
decision making, logic, etc.
Miller, Sperling, Ebbinghaus, Loftus
human memory recall experiments,
brain imaging, case studies
some free will (soft determinism)
nature and nurture
empirical evidence, but some inference
interest in internal, as well as external
more generalizable population
computer not the same as the mind
reductionist (computer analogy)
brain differences? complexity of?
unreliable memory? emotions?
self potential and actualization, realistic self concept/construct,
unconditional positive regard
Maslow, Rogers, Kelly
increased free will
genes, nervous and endocrine systems, chemicals, neurotransmitters, hormones, brain structure, etc.
Sperry, Loewi, Galvani,
no empirical data
abstract, loose definitions
experiments, brain imaging--CAT, MRI, PET, fMRI scans, animals, twin studies
empirical, observable data
reliance on technology
efficacy of medical treatment
social animals who want to belong and connect, environment and culture, social self,
group memberships, compliance, conformity, norms, authority,, attribution--explaining cause as either internal or external, individualistic versus collectivistic
Bandura, Sherif, Asch, Milgram
human experiments, naturalistic observations
accounts for nurture
individualistic vs. collectivistic