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APUSH Ch 22: Cultural Conflict, Bubble, and Bust, 1919-1932

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Harry Jarcho

on 29 March 2017

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Transcript of APUSH Ch 22: Cultural Conflict, Bubble, and Bust, 1919-1932

An admired bureaucrat and engineer, Herbert Hoover opposed cutthroat capitalist competition
Like Roosevelt, Hoover believed that business had a responsibility to behave ethically
Promoted cooperation
between business and government in planning for growth and for resource management

- that business voluntarily do the right thing, e.g., adopt the 8-hour day and pay higher wages
Pushed for conservation and control of pollution
Ultimately, when the economy soured, Hoover failed to act.
The Election of 1928 symbolized the cultural divisions of the nation - the progressive, urban, ethnic Democratic candidate versus the traditional, WASP, "heartland" Republican candidate
Democrats nominated
Al Smith
– former governor of NY – Irish/German/Italian heritage, Catholic, anti-Prohibition, largely progressive
Republicans nominated
Herbert Hoover
when Coolidge declined to run for re-election
Hoover ran on Republican economic prosperity and a “final triumph over poverty”
The Election of 1928
The Coming of the Great Depression
Rapid social change provoked a nativist backlash, highlighting the tensions and contradictions of the decade
Job fears combined with nostalgia for an idealized, more homogeneous America, leading to the
National Origins Act (1924)
Restricted annual immigration from any country to 2% of that nation’s representation in the U.S. as of 1890 (later changed to 1920) - an obvious effort to stem “new immigration” of southern European Catholics and Jews
Asians were excluded entirely
Changing Image of Women
Despite isolationism, and refusal to join international groups, the Republican administrations pursued international policies which they saw as serving America’s national interest - an agenda called
Independent Internationalism
Promoted U.S. economic interests –

Dollar Diplomacy
e.g., demanded, repayment of war loans, despite the fact that high U.S. tariffs and Europe's economic woes made loan repayment virtually impossible
resisted efforts by European nations to regain control of foreign industries in which U.S. had made large investments (e.g., Mexican oil fields)
Republicans passed high tariffs, which promoted manufacturing and protected American industry, but raised prices for consumers and hurt farmers, who depended on exports
The Republicans cut income-tax rates for the wealthy (“trickle-down” economics)
Coolidge was committed to “laissez-faire” economic policy in government
refused to aid flood victims
refused to provide price supports to basic farm commodities, driving many farmers into the Democratic party
The Federal Trade Commission and the courts failed to enforce antitrust laws
Women were replaced by returning servicemen in most industrial production jobs
Wage discrimination remained widespread
The weakening of the labor union movement hurt women
Women found increasing employment in the white collar sector, as secretaries – rarely in management positions
Women’s role and power as consumers was actively courted, even as they were marginalized in the workplace
New assembly line techniques (
) boosted productivity 40%, lowering prices
Business consolidation continued - Ford, GM, GE, Westinghouse - by 1930, 100 corporations controlled nearly 50% of all American business
Initially, corporations rejected wage cuts, and actually raised wages in order to stimulate consumer demand
Advertising and
buying on credit
grew explosively
Presidential Election of 1924
Democratic Party support was split between urban voters (ethnic, progressive) and rural voters (Southern, conservative, and often racist)
To keep Southern support, the 1924 Democratic convention rejected a resolution condemning the Ku Klux Klan
With the Democratic Party divided, Progressive candidate Robert LaFollette siphoning off progressive votes, and with the economy humming along, Coolidge cruised to a landslide Republican victory in 1924
As the stock market tumbled on October 24, 1929, a crowd of concerned investors gathered outside the New York Stock Exchange on Wall Street
(We will look in greater depth at the underlying causes of the Great Depression in the next chapter)
Management employed thugs to intimidate and harass labor during the 1920s. Union organizers were tarred as unamerican Communists during the “Red Scare”
The Klan’s promise to restore America’s racial, ethnic, religious, and moral purity appealed to middle- and working class white Protestants feeling disoriented and frightened by rapid social change
The KKK of the 1920s added immigrants, Catholics, and Jews to the harassment, physical intimidation, arson, economic boycotts, and lynching –
domestic terrorism
– that they had pioneered against African-Americans
Marcus Garvey
, shown here in New York City in 1922, attracted many poor and working-class urban African-Americans with the parades and regalia of his
Universal Negro Improvement Association
and its message of black pride, self-help, and pan-African nationalism.
Marcus Garvey (1887–1945)
Blues by Archibald Motley, 1929
This painting by the African-American artist
Archibald Motley
represented the
"Ash-Can" style
, which considered no subject too undignified to paint, as well as the sensual relationship between jazz music and dancing within African American culture.
Harlem, NY became a mecca for African-American poets, writers, and artists, as well as a base for growing political power and pride, as exemplified by the Garvey movement

No other artistic form exemplified America’s changing, modernizing culture as vividly as jazz, but it was by no means the only contribution of African-Americans to American culture

The Urban and Rural Population of the United States, 1900–2000
Clarence Darrow (left) argued against William Jenning Bryan at the Scopes Trial
- A Protestant movement which believes in the Bible’s literal truth, e.g., the Genesis account of Creation
Viewing it as a threat to faith, Fundamentalists sought to outlaw the teaching of
Darwin’s theory of Natural Selection
in the public schools
American Civil Liberties Union
backed a challenge to the law, and Tennessee high school teacher
John Scopes
intentionally broke the law to test its constitutionality
Displaying a smug, urban intolerance as corrosive as that of the rural Fundamentalists he belittled, reporter and social critic
H. L. Mencken
dismissed anti-evolution Fundamentalists in the "Bible Belt" as "gaping primates," "yokels," and " ignoramuses."
Fundamentalism and
the Scopes “Monkey” Trial
From Grove to Consumer: California Citrus Industry in the 1920s
The ban on much European immigration led to a huge rise in immigration from Mexico and other Latin American countries, principally to fill farm labor needs
Mexican workers at a citrus grove in Southern California’s Orange County.
The idealized scene of a mother and child with Valencia oranges is from a crate label used by an Orange County citrus grower.
Needed Workers/Unwelcome Aliens:
Hispanic Newcomers Fill the Void When European and Asian Immigration are Restricted
A Farewell to Arms
Ernest Hemingway
wrote cynically about the “glory” and “sacrifices” of war and about the politicians who waged it
The Great Gatsby
F. Scott Fitzgerald
celebrated the liberation of the Roaring Twenties, but also exposed the decadence, selfishness, and disregard of the hedonistic rich for the less fortunate
Disillusioned writers and youth rejected Victorian morality and sought to defy conventional definitions of proper behavior
The Jazz Age and the Postwar Crisis of Values
III. Intellectual Modernism
Mass media, especially movies, both shaped fashion and reflected national anxieties about changing social mores (e.g., role of women, impact of industrial routine on men’s sense of self-worth)

Traditionalists and Fundamentalists worried that Hollywood's "Jewish -owned" movie industry was contributing to immorality
Hollywood and Celebrity Culture
Labor saving appliances like gas stoves, electric irons, washing machines, and vacuum cleaners meant eased housework for women
Car ownership meant new freedom for workers, women, and youth
The growth of consumer goods and electrical appliances, but especially the automobile industry, stimulated the economy
By 1930, 60% of American families owned a car
Like other nations, the US enacted high tariffs to protect domestic industry - this policy hurt farmers, as farm prices and agricultural exports plummeted
“Fueled by new consumer products and new methods of producing and selling goods, the economy surged in the 1920s. Not everyone benefited, and farmers in particular suffered chronic economic woes.”

After a brief postwar down-turn, the American economy surged in the 1920s.
Economic Expansion, 1920–1929
Widely ignored, prohibition undermined respect for the law and strengthened organized crime; it was repealed in 1933
Prohibition was both a legitimate effort to address alcohol abuse, and an effort at moral control of the immigrant cities
Presidential Election of 1920:
Republicans sought to soothe the nation after the war and nominated
Warren G. Harding
, promising a
“Return to Normalcy”
Harding won a landslide victory over the Democratic nominee, Ohio Governor James M. Cox
Although not personally corrupt, Harding’s appointments were poor, and his administration was marked by influence peddling and corruption (e.g., Teapot Dome Scandal)
When Harding died in office, VP
Calvin Coolidge
assumed office
Conservative Politics in a Decade of Change
Identify the Big Idea:
What conflicts in culture and politics arose in the 1920s, and how did economic developments in that decade help cause the Great Depression?
Cultural Conflict, Bubble, and Bust, 1919-1932
Period 7: Chapter 22
A Consumer Culture
Women in the New Economic Era
Booming Business, Ailing Agriculture
Republican Policy in a Pro-Business Era
Foreign Policy:
Independent Internationalism & Dollar Diplomacy
Democratic Division and the Presidential Election of 1924: Progressivism in Disarray
Mass Media, Mass Culture & the Movies
Flaming Youth,
Alienated Writers
Nativism, Anti-radicalism, and the Sacco-Vanzettti Case
Culture Wars
Herbert Hoover at the Helm
Smith carried the nation’s 12 largest cities and did well among traditionally Republican midwestern farmers, who were angered by Coolidge’s indifference to their plight
But, with the economy booming, Hoover won in a landslide, even gaining votes in the Democratic “solid South”
Stock Market Crash of 1929
The Changing Image of Women, Flaming Youth, and Alienated Writers
Alienated Writers: The "Lost Generation"
Cultural Conflict, Bubble, and Bust, 1919-1932
Chapter 22
Chapter Outline
I. Conflicted Legacies of World War I
Racial Strife
Erosion of Labor Rights
The Red Scare
II. Politics in the 1920s
Republicans and Business
Dollar Diplomacy
Culture Wars
III. Intellectual Modernism
Critiquing American Life
Harlem in Vogue
IV. From Boom to Bust:
The Postwar Economy
Consumer Culture and Mass Culture
The Coming of the Great Depression
I. Conflicted Legacies of WWI
African-American efforts to assert equal rights led to a white backlash
Returning soldiers demanded equality, based on service
Job opportunities had led to the Great Migration to northern industrial cities

After the war, job competition and latent racial prejudices in the North led to a series of race riots and violence against African-Americans, both in the rural South and industrial North, e.g., Chicago, St. Louis, Tulsa
Unionized white workers resented black strike-breakers, once industry began to roll back wartime wage gains

Gains made by labor during WWI were rolled back during this period
1919 saw the largest number of strikes in the nation's history, as employers rolled back wage increases and tried to kill unions
The entire Boston Police force was fired by Gov. Calvin Coolidge when they went on strike
The public sided with Coolidge and the Republicans nominated him for VP in 1920
The Supreme Court also sided against labor
ruled strikes to be an illegal restraint of trade (Coronado v United Mine Workers, 1925)
struck down federal legislation regulating child labor
voided the minimum wage for women
Union membership fell from 5.1 million to 3.6 million
Bottom Line: Organized labor gains of the Progressive Era were rolled back
The Red Scare
The Palmer Raids
Sacco and Vanzetti
Rural, native-born WASP America v.
Increasingly Diverse Urban America
Anti-immigrant prejudice, anti-German prejudice, and patriotic fervor (Prohibition was pitched as a way to preserve grains for the boys fighting "Over There") all combined to finally achieve the moral Progressive's dream of temperance - the era of alcohol prohibition
"a victory for health, morals, and Christian values"
the experiment failed, as crime syndicates grew rich providing illegal alcohol to Americans who flouted the law in droves
Nativism and Immigration Restriction
Nativism, Racism, and the Resurgence of the Ku Klux Klan
African Nationalism: The Garvey Movement
In a rebuke to progressive and fundamentalist moralism, authors and playwrights like
Eugene O'Neill
explored the dark side of the human psyche, depicting characters driven by raw, ungovernable sexual impulses.
Sinclair Lewis
was a savage critic of conformity and what he viewed as the hypocrisy of small-town and rural life. He was the 1st American to receive the Nobel Prize for literature for such novels as
Elmer Gantry

I am the darker brother.
They send me to eat in the kitchen
When company comes,
But I laugh,
And eat well,
And grow strong.

I’ll be at the table
When company comes.
Nobody’ll dare
Say to me,
“Eat in the kitchen,"

They’ll see how beautiful I am
And be ashamed—

I, too, am America.
African-American poets, like
Langston Hughes
, and authors, like
Zora Neale Hurston
, expressed confidence and pride in the African-American experience
The Postwar Economy
Brief video clip of Rudolph Valentino
Brief video clip of flapper icon Clara Bow
Brief video clip of Charles Lindberg
Jazz great Louis Armstrong
Introductory Video Clip
Racial Strife
Erosion of Labor Rights
April, 1919 – postal workers intercept 34 bombs addressed to govt. officials
June, 1919 – unsuccessful bombing attempt on life of U.S. Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer
Palmer established an antiradicalism division of the Justice Dept. (which became the FBI) and launched a series of raids on suspected radicals
Over 7000 alleged anarchist, radical immigrants and citizens were arrested, imprisoned – many were deported without trial
Red Scare
hysteria was in full bloom, leading to the May, 1920 arrest of
Nicola Sacco
Bartolomeo Vanzetti
on murder charges

The Palmer Raids
Conservatism in the 1920s
Click to view video
Click to view video
The Scopes Trial: Click to view video
Nativism and Racism in the 1920s:
Resurgence of the Ku Klux Klan
Click to view video
Click to view video
The Harlem Renaissance
Click to view video
"The Business of America is Business"
Click to view video
Mass Production and Consumer Culture
Click to view video
Cultural Impact of the Movies and other Mass Entertainments
Click to view video
The Stock Market Crash of 1929
Click to view video
The Trial of Sacco and Vanzetti
Click to view video
Anger over the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk and anti-communist hysteria led to a
Red Scare
, which damaged the labor movement, especially the openly socialist IWW, which was accused of advocating anarchy and revolution
Labor and the Red Scare
U. Utah Phillips on the IWW
Politics of the IWW
The FBI arrested and deported hundreds of suspected communists and radicals
“America must be kept American.”
President Calvin Coolidge quoted upon signing the National Origins Act in 1924)
The Harlem Renaissance
Cars, and Consumer Goods and Installment Buying
II. Politics in the 1920s:
Harding and Coolidge Administrations

Nativism and Immigration Restriction
Art and Literature
IV. From Boom to Bust:
The Economy of the 1920s

I, Too, Sing America
Langston Hughes, 1902 - 1967
Bottom Line: Racial Equality was not a priority during the Progressive Era and racism continued to flourish, North and South, in the 1920s
Link to "The Klan's Fight for Americanism"
Bottom Line
: Big business was very successful in linking organized labor with radicalism, anarchism, and communism. Working people fighting for economic justice were linked, in the press, by the government, and in the public imagination, as dupes of anti-American radicals out to destroy capitalism and the American way of life
Link to H.L. Mencken's scalding reporting on the Scopes Trial:
Bottom Line: The prevaling attitude of the 1920s was that women were wives and, therefore, secondary workers. The reality of single women in the workforce and the notion of equal economic opportunity, was largely ignored
Full transcript