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Chapter 16: American Colonial Rule Policy and Governance (1899-1907)
Transcript of Chapter 16: American Colonial Rule Policy and Governance (1899-1907)
Until such time that he was succeeded by Gen. Elwell Otis as military Governor. Otis remained to his post up to May 1900, and was succeeded by Gen. Arthur MacArthur who governed until May 1901.
As representative of the Pres. of the United States in the Philippines, the military governor exercised wide powers which included the executive ,legislative, and judicial powers.
The military governor's duties included the pacification of the provinces which had not yet recognized the authority of the United States and the maintenance of peace and order.
The military governor ordered the organization of town and provincial governments.Baliwag, Bulacan was the first town under the American colonial rule to hold a local elections on May 7,1898. The American Colonial Rule Policy and Governance (1899-1907) Chapter 16 American Policy in the Philippines Toward the end of the treaty of 1898, even before the conclusion of the treaty of Paris, American policy regarding the Philippines was already clear. There was no Mistaking the fact that Mckinley wanted the entire Philippines for the United States.
In order for him to formulate this policy, McKinley created what is now known as the first Philippine Commission , The Schurman Commission.
McKinley issued his "instruction."These instructions clearly indicated that the authority of the United States should be extended all over the Philippines in a peaceful manner. It was also instructed to "secure, with the least possible delay, the benefits of wise and generous protection of life and property." as well as to respect the customs and traditions of the Filipinos. The Commission arrived in manila in March 1899. Immediately, it conducted an investigations into the condition of the country.
For this purpose, it interviewed the highly- educated and wealthy Filipinos, the ilustrados. While the group of Filipinos was willing to cooperate with the U.S.,the great majority led by Aguinaldo, persisted in fighting for recognition of the Philippine independence and the Malolos Republic.
The Commission issued the following recommendation to implement American Rule.
the enforcement of American sovereignty over the entire Philippines.
training for self-government of the Filipinos compatible with the maintenance of order and with a wise,just, and economical administration of public affairs.
protection of the civil rights of the Filipinos;and
the promotion of the welfare of the Filipinos. The Schurman Commission Created in 1900, the Taft Commission was instructed by McKinley to establish a government for the Filipinos and that the steps toward attaining this goal should be in accordance with the customs and tradition of the people. Free primary education was to be introduced by the Commission in the Philippines and that the English language should be used as the medium of instruction. The Taft Commission To summarize, American policy with regard to the Philippines was based on President McKinley's instructions to the Schurman and Taft Commissions. This policy consisted the principle that the Americans came to the Philippines not as Conquerors but as a Friends, whose aim was to work for the benefit and welfare of the Filipino people. Early in March 1901,the congress of the United States passed the Army Appropriations Act. Senator John Spooner of Wisconsin inserted an amendment in the appropriations act which authorized the President of the United States to establish a civil government in the Philippines.
On July 4, 1901, the civil government was inaugurated with William Howard Taft as the First civil governor. Being the chairman of the Philippines Commission, the first lawmaking body of the Philippines under the Americans, Governor Taft exercised legislative powers. The Civil Government Governor Taft realized the enormity of his problems, particularly the and order situation of the country. Not all the provinces of the Philippines were pacified. Guerrilla fighting continued and reached its peak in 1899 to 1900.
The Guerrillas appeared peaceful by day but night they attacked the americans wherever they were found.
The Guerrillas stopped fighting when the problem of food supply arose. There was famine because agriculture was neglected during the war and due to rinderpest that killed 90% of the country's main farm animal-the Carabao.
This weakened the mass support of the war. Also, sanitation conditions in the reconcentration camps were very poor due to overcrowding. Many died of diseases caused by unsanitary conditions.
Taft studied these problems and tried to minimize their effects,but without success. The period in fact saw the passage of repressive laws like the Reconcentration Act which provided for the zoning of the inhabitants of a town known to have "thieves"and"outlaws".
According to James Blount (1913), Section 17 of General Orders 100 authorized the military to starve unarmed and armed natives in order for them to immediately, recognized American military authority.
sedition Law passed in 1901,provided that any Filipino advocating independence or separation from the united states would be punished severely by death or imprisonment. The Brigandage Act was passed providing for severe penalty to those found in the company, or were in great shortage due to rinderpest. Guerrilla warfare under these circumstances was suppressed.
Little by little, peace and order improved and Taft appealed to he american congress to appropriate sufficient funds to give economic relief to the suffering Filipinos.
He criticized Americans who were impatient with his policy of attraction and with his doctrine of "the Philippines for the Filipinos. It seemed is policies and programs were only good as rhetorics. The combination of peace and war methods does not work. Resistance to Taft's Policy Banishment of the Patriots Even before the fall of the aguinaldos government, many wealthy and educated Filipinos were already collaborating with the enemy. Buencamino, Cayetano Arellanon and others were telling the Schurman Commission that the Filipinos were not prepared for self Government.
Mabini, the most irreconcilable of all wrote articles struggle for the philippine independence. The American decided to banish Filipino leaders who refused to collaborate with them. The Philippine Bill of 1902 In 1902 the US Congress passed a law known as the Cooper Law: The Law boosted Governor Taft's Administration.
It also provide a bill of rights which Guaranteed Filipinos the Right of Speech,Free Press, and Freedom to petition for the redress of grievances. One of the most important provisions of Cooper Act was the establishment of a Philippine assembly to be run by Filipinos two years after the peace and order had been proclaimed throughout the Philippines by the US President. As a part of preparation for the election of members to the First Philippine Assembly,some freedom was given to the Filipinos.
They were allowed to form a Political Parties.
For as long as their Platform was not based on the independence.
The Political Parties
The first Democrata Party
Only Federal Party whose platform was about the annexation of the Philippines to US.
and Others are about the Immediate Independence. Political Parties In the Election on July 30,1907,the people gave their verdict:they were in favor of immediate independence.This was attested by an overwhelming vote for the Nacionalista Party which won fifty-nine seats.The Progresista Party won only sixteen seats,while independents won five seats. The Election of 1907 100% Scholar. VINNA
President The Philippine Assembly,which was to become the Lower House of the Legislative body of the country, and the Philippines Commission being the Upper House ,was inaugurated in the old Opera House at Rizal Avenue on October 16,1907.
Manuel L. Quezon was elected Majority Floor Leader . The First Philippine Assembly Under the Leadership of Osmeña, the Assembly outlined its activities based on the following goals:
Cooperating with the United States on the basis of mutual respect.
making the Assembly an instrument in achieving the autonomy of the Philippines.
Passing of laws intended to hasten the economic,social, and political development of the people.
And substituting the oppressive policy of the past with the progressive policies.
Achievements of Assembly
The establishment of agricultural bank
the construction of new railway lines
the installation of telegraph and telephone Lines
The construction of School houses,roads,bridges,and the irrigation canals. The Work of the Assembly In compliance with the provision of the Philippines Act of 1902; the Philippine Assembly elected Two resident Commissioners to the United State Congress.
First Resident Comm. are Pablo Ocampo(1907-1909) & Benito Legarda(1907-1912).
Manuel L. Quezon,then Majority Floor Leader, was elected resident comm. in 1909 to replace Ocampo. In 1912, Manuel Earnshaw replaced Legarda. The other resident commissioners were Teodoro R. Yangco (1917-1920), Jaime C. de Veyra (1917-1923), Isauro Gabalbon (1920-1928), Pedro Guevarra (1923-1935),Camilio Osias (1929-1934), and Francisco Delgado (1934-1935). The Resident Commissioners After the battle of Manila Bay, the Americans established the first school in corregidor. After the mock battle of Manila, schools were established. These Schools were free and open to everyone.
At the same time, normal schools and schools of arts and trades were established.
American Teachers are called"Thomasites" and they teach English to Childrens. The Public School System Pensionado Program was the people who was been send to the United States for higher Education as government Scholars.
After 4 years living in the America, they returned to Philippines as teachers,lawyers,engineers, and mostly as civil servants in the bureaucracy.
These Pensionados, having been direct beneficiaries of the benevolent but colonial policies, would later support American stay in the Philippines. The Pensionado Program During the Spanish period, the position of women was relegated to the status of mere housewives whose duties were to rear children and serve the husband. Few Filipino women were highly educated.Under the Americans,women are allowed to enroll in colleges and universities established by them. Many women became teachers,lawyers,pharmacist,dentist,physicians,and scientist.
Their liberation from the drudgery of household work gave them the opportunity not only to help their husbands,but also to contribute their expertise and knowledge to benefit their families and countrymen. The Position of Women By: ViAndRaeL The End :)