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Transcript of Rome
•Mediterranean Sea: Protection, sea-borne commerce Q: How was geographic location important to the economic, social, and political development of ancient Rome? A: The Italian peninsula was protected by the sea and the arc of the Alps mountains. Roman mythology, like Greek mythology, was based upon a polytheistic religion that was integral to culture, politics, and art. Many of Western civilization’s symbols, metaphors, words, and idealized images come from ancient Roman mythology. Q: What was the source of Roman mythology? Roman mythology•Based on the Greek polytheistic religion•Explanations of natural phenomena, human qualities, and life events Although women, most aliens (non- Romans living in the Republic), and slaves were excluded from the governing process, the Roman Republic made major strides in the development of representative democracy, which became a foundation of modern democracy. How did the government of the Roman Republic become more democratic in its decision making? Social structure in the Roman Republic
•Patricians: Powerful nobility (few innumber)
•Plebeians: Majority of population
•Slaves: Not based on race Patricians Slaves Plebeians Citizenship
•Patrician and plebeian men
•Rights and responsibilities of
citizenship (e.g., taxes, military service) Features of democracy
•Laws of Rome codified as
Twelve Tables The Roman Forum These laws talked about property, crime, family, theft, marriage and inheritance.The laws tried to be fair on most accounts. These were the first laws written down. They were engraved on stone tablets and put on display at the Forum in the city of Rome, so that everyone could see them and know the laws of Rome. This is assumed to have helped their crime rates and made Rome a better place. After the victory over Carthage in the Punic Wars, Rome was able, over the next 100 years, to dominate the Mediterranean basin, leading to the diffusion of Roman culture. Q: Why was Rome able to conquer Carthage and then go on to extend its influence across the entire Mediterranean basin and much of Western Europe? Punic Wars: Rome vs. Carthage (264–146 B.C. [B.C.E.])
•Rome and Carthage were in competition for trade.
•Hannibal invaded the Italian Peninsula.
•Three wars resulted in Roman victory, the destruction of Carthage,
and expanded trade and wealth for Rome. The First Punic War
Roman Commander: Marcus Atilius Regulus
Carthaginian Commander: General Hamilcar
Why did the War Start? Romans and Carthaginians fought for control of the strategic island of Sicily
What Were the Results of the War? Rome wins in 241 B.C.E. and takes possession of Sicily The Second Punic War
Roman Commander: Scipio Africanus
Carthaginian Commander: Hannibal
Why did the War Start? Carthage attacked a Roman town in Spain called Saguntum
What Were the Results of the War? Rome completely defeated Carthage taking all of its territory, ships, and money The Third Punic War
Roman Commander: Scipio Aemilianus
Carthaginian Commander: Hasdrubal
Why did the War Start? In 149 B.C.E. the Carthaginians rebel against the Romans
What Were the Results of the War? Rome puts down the Carthaginian rebellion and destroys Carthage, selling the people into slavery and pouring salt into the farmland Evolution of the Roman Empire and spread of Roman culture
•Mediterranean basin (Africa, Asia, Europe, including the
Hellenisticworld of the Eastern Mediterranean)
•Western Europe (Gaul, British Isles) The Roman Republic, in the face of changing social and economic conditions, succumbed to civil war and was replaced by an imperial regime, the Roman Empire. Q: How did an imperial monarchy come to rule Rome? Q: How did military conquests alter economic and social life in Rome? Why did the Roman Republic fail to survive challenges by Julius Caesar? Causes for the decline of the Roman Republic
•Spread of slavery in the agricultural system
•Migration of small farmers into cities and unemployment
•Civil war over the power of Julius Caesar
•Devaluation of Roman currency; inflation The origin and evolution of Imperial Rome
•Julius Caesar: Seizure of power, assassination
•Augustus Caesar: Civil war, defeat of Marc Anthony,
Augustus becomes Rome’s firstemperor
•Empire: Unified and enlarged, using
imperial authority and the military
•Failure to provide for peaceful succession of Emperors Augustus Caesar established the Roman Empire by instituting civil service, rule by law, a common coinage, and secure travel and trade throughout the Empire. Following Augustus Caesar, the Roman Empire enjoyed 200 years of peace and prosperity known as the Pax Romana. What was the Pax Romana? The Pax Romana
•Two centuries of peace and prosperity under imperial rule
•Expansion and solidification of the Roman Empire, particularly in the Near East What was the impact of the Pax Romana
on the Roman Empire? Economic impact of the Pax Romana
•Established uniform system of money, which helped to expand trade
•Guaranteed safe travel and trade on Roman roads
•Promoted prosperity and stability Social impact of the Pax Romana
•Returned stability to social classes
•Increased emphasis on the family Political impact of the Pax Romana
•Created a civil service
•Developed a uniform rule of law Christianity The followers of Jesus spread Christianity throughout the Roman Empire, bringing it into conflict with Roman polytheism and eventually changing Western civilization. Q: How did Christianity become established within the Roman Empire? Origins of Christianity
•Had its roots in Judaism
•Was led by Jesus of Nazareth, who was proclaimed the Messiah
•Conflicted with polytheistic beliefs of Roman Empire What were the essential beliefs of the early Christian faith? Beliefs, traditions, and customs of Christianity
•Jesus as both Son and incarnation of God
•Life after death
•New Testament, containing accounts of the life and teachings of Jesus, aswell as writings of early Christians •Christian doctrines established by early church councils How and why did Christianity spread? Popularity of the message Early martyrs inspired others
Carried by the Apostles, including Paul, throughout the Roman Empire The Catholic Church As the Roman Empire declined in the West, the Church of Rome grew in importance, followers, and influence. What was the impact of the early Church in the late Roman Empire? Impact of the Church of Rome in the late Roman Empire
•The Emperor Constantine converted to Christianity and made it legal.
(Edict of Milan)
•Christianity later became the official state religion.
•The Church became a source of moral authority.
•Loyalty to the Church became more important than loyalty to the Emperor. •The Church became the main unifying force of Western Europe.
(education, social services, medicine) Contributions of ancient Rome
•Art and architecture: Pantheon, Colosseum, Forum
•Technology: Roads, aqueducts, Roman arches
•Science: Achievements of Ptolemy
•Medicine: Emphasis on public health(public baths, public water systems, medical schools)
•Language: Latin, Romance languages
•Literature: Virgil’s Aeneid
•Religion: Roman mythology;adoption of Christianity as the imperial religion
•Law: The principle of “innocent until proven guilty” (from the Twelve Tables) Contributions of Ancient Rome Aeneas is shipwrecked on the coast of North Africa, near where Dido, the young Phoenician queen - herself a refugee from her homeland - is building a city which will become Carthage. Aeneas, who had escaped death when Troy fell to the Greeks, has been wandering in search of a new land in the west, where it has been prophesied he shall establish a race whose destiny is to rule the world in peace and prosperity. The people are the Romans, and Aeneas' mission comes from Jupiter, king of gods and men. Unfortunately, Juno, queen of heaven, is set on thwarting Aeneas - because she knows that Rome is destined to destroy Carthage, her own favorite city. But it is inevitable that Aeneas and Dido meet - and she falls hopelessly in love. The Fall of Rome Why did the Western Roman Empire decline? Causes for the decline of the Western Roman Empire
•Geographic size: Difficulty of defense and administration
•Economy: The cost of defense, and devaluation of Roman currency
•Military: Army membership started to include non-Romans, resulting in decline of discipline
•Moral decay: People’s loss of faith in Rome and the family
•Political problems: Civil conflict and weak administration
•Invasion: Attacks on borders Divison of Rome •Move of the capital by Constantine from Rome to Byzantium, renaming it Constantinople
• Survival of the Western Roman Empire until 476 A.D. (C.E.), when it ceased to have a Roman Emperor
• Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine Empire) Aeneas is shipwrecked on the coast of North Africa, near where Dido, the young Phoenician queen - herself a refugee from her homeland - is building a city which will become Carthage. Aeneas, who had escaped death when Troy fell to the Greeks, has been wandering in search of a new land in the west, where it has been prophesied he shall establish a race whose destiny is to rule the world in peace and prosperity. The people are the Romans, and Aeneas' mission comes from Jupiter, king of gods and men. Unfortunately, Juno, queen of heaven, is set on thwarting Aeneas - because she knows that Rome is destined to destroy Carthage, her own favorite city. But it is inevitable that Aeneas and Dido meet - and she falls hopelessly in love.