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Transcript of Waves
Some More Definitions...
Created by Gabriella Putney
A disturbing force that creates a wave, such as wind or a landslide.
Fun in the
Hurricane Waves or Swell
Energy from Waves
A force that returns a disturbed water surface to the equilibrium level, such as surface tension and gravity.
A continuous area of water over which wind blows in essentially a constant direction.
A water wave form in which gravity acts as the restoring force; waves with wavelengths greater than 2 cm.
Energy from Waves
The time during which something continues.
A wave created by the action of the sea surface.
The tendency of a liquid surface to contract owing to bonding forces between molecules.
The process by which a disturbance at one point is propagated to another point more remote from the source with no net transport of the material of the medium itself; examples include the motion of electromagnetic waves, sound waves, hydrodynamic waves in liquids, and vibration waves in solids. Also known as propagation; wave propagation.
The time required for two successive wave crests or troughs to pass a fixed point.
The speed at which the wave form of a progressive wave travels.
Parts of a Sea Wave
A scale of wind forces by range of velocity; scale of sea state created by winds of these velocities.
The Beaufort Scale
A wind-estimation system developed in 1806 by Admiral Sir Francis Beaufort of the British Navy. Admiral Beaufort related wind speed and sea surface conditions and designed a 0-12 (calm to hurricane) wind scale with descriptions sea conditions at each level.
The Universal Sea State Code
A long and relatively uniform wind generated ocean waves that have traveled out of their generating area.
A spiller will give a surfer a long ride. They form on wide and flat beaches. This is a type of breaker.
A sea-surface wave that has become too steep to be stable and collapses.
A breaker that will give a surfer a "more exciting" ride. They form on narrow, steep beach slopes.
Barrel (or Tube)
An area of smooth surface water.
An abnormally high wave unrelated to local storm conditions.
A standing wave oscillation of an enclosed or semienclosed body of water that continues, pendulum fashion, after the generating force ceases.
Arises seemingly out of nowhere and is significantly higher than surrounding waves.
A turbulent layer of water that washes up on the beach after an incoming wave has broken.
A back flow of water.
A strong surface current flowing seaward from shore; the return movement of water piled up on the shore by incoming waves and wind.
A group of waves of larger size within a swell.
Wave Trains or Wave Sets
A structure located to influence currents or protect the entrance to a harbor or river from waves (U.S. terminology).
A protective structure for the shore, usually built perpendicular to the shoreline; used to trap littoral drift or retard erosion of the shore; a type of jetty.
A wall or embankment erected to prevent the sea from encroaching on or eroding an area of land.
A structure separating land and water areas; primarily designed to resit earth sliding and slumping or reduce wave erosion at the base of a cliff.
A bag filled with sand, typically used for defensive purposes or for protection from flooding.
that occurs spontaneously without regular management, maintenance or species introductions.
A long period sea wave produced by a submarine earthquake or volcanic eruption. It may travel across the ocean for thousands of miles unnoticed from its point of origin and build up to great heights over shallow water at the shore.
Definition of a Tsunami
They are caused by underwater earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, sub-marine rockslides, or, more infrequently, by asteroids or meteoroids that collide into in the water from space.
How Tsunamis Form
Tsunamis occur most often along countries which border the Pacific "Rim of Fire", or "Ring of Fire'. One end of this region of high seismic and volcanic activity begins at New Zealand, heading northwest to Indonesia (completely bypassing Australia) and then west to Papua New guinea and Indonesia, northeast along the Asian coastline, east to North America and then south along the western North American coastline. Roughly horse-shoe shaped, the Ring of Fire extends about 40,000km long, and tsunamis can be generated anywhere along this rim.
Areas Likely to Have Tsunamis
Located in Ewa Beach, Hawaii, serves as the regional Tsunami Warning Center for Hawaii and as a national/international warning center for tsunamis that pose a Pacific-wide threat. This international warning effort became a formal arrangement in 1965 when PTWC assumed the international warning responsibilities of the Pacific Tsunami Warning System (PTWS).
The Pacific Warning System
(or some of)
1883 Krakatoa tsunami
In 1883, the volcanic island of Krakatoa erupted in Indonesia. The blast destroyed two-thirds of the island and sent 130-foot-high waves surging across the Indian Ocean, killing 36,500 people from Indonesia to India.
1498 Japan tsunami
For the same reason Japan is famous for its hot springs, it's also known for its tsunami-causing earthquakes. It sits near where several continental and oceanic plates meet in the Pacific Ocean, and in 1498 those plates shifted.
1755 Lisbon tsunami
In 1755, a massive 9-magnitude earthquake in the Atlantic Ocean caused a 400-foot-high wave to come crashing down on Lisbon, the capital of Portugal.
Cape Fear, Sydney, Australia
Peahi, or Jaws, Maui, Hawaii
Dungeons, South Africa
They extend perpendicular to the direction of the wave and capture or reflect the power of the wave.
These are long multisegment floating structures oriented parallel to the direction of the waves.
A floating structure with components that move relative to each other due to wave action (e.g., a floating buoy inside a fixed cylinder).
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