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The Domains of Life

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Fahad Ahmed

on 24 August 2013

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Transcript of The Domains of Life

The Domains of Life
Fahad Ahmed

Aka: Eukaryota
Eukaryotes: "An organism whose cell contains a nucelus and other organelles closed within a membrane"


-Multicellular Organisms
-Many Times Reproduce Sexually
-Various Parts of Body Responsible for Different Jobs (Specialized Parts)
-Sometime in their life have the ability to move
-Consumers (Must take in/ingest food)
-Most Animals are Diploids (there are two sets of the cell's genetic material)
Types of Animals:

-(Over 30 phyla of invertebrates)
- (Fish, Amphibians, Reptiles, Mammals, Birds)

Major Groups Include: Sponges, Placozoans, Ctenophores, Cnidarians, Protostomes, Deuterosomes
Animal Cells:

-Same basic makeup of eukaryote cells
-No Cell Wall
-No Chloroplasts

Animal Body Plans:

-Many animals are symetrical, however some are asymetrical as well
-Most phyla of animals are bilaterally symetrical, while others can be radially symmetrical
-Many zoologists group animals based on the presence of a coelm (central cavity)

Asymmetry Radial Bilateral
A domain characterized with single celled organisms who do not contain a cell nucleus or membrane enclosed organelles.
Archaea Cell Structure vs Bacteria Cell Structure:

-Unicellular, lack organelles
-Archae don't have a peptidoglycan wall, which is what differentiates itself from bacteria
-Genetic makeup of archaea is different and more complex (RNA)
-Archaea has hydrocarbon chains which form the membrane, not a lipid bilayer
Cell Characteristics:

-They are obligate anaerobes (survive in oxygen free environments)
-Know to be extemophiles (suvive in a myriad of environments)
-May contain plasmids which are independent pieces of DNA which usually code for drug resistance or specific enzymes
-Size ranges from 1/10 nm - 15 nm
-Most interactions between these and other life is either symbiotic or commensalism because they do not pose pathogenic hazards
Identified Phylum:

Types of Archaea:

-Thermoacidophiles: Characterized by archaea whom live in extremely hot environments, many times rich in sulfur

-Methanogens: Characterized by archaea whom produce methane gas as a waste of their digestion, these live in many different types of environments

-Halophiles: Characterized by archaea whom reside in extremely salty environments

-Psychrophiles: Characterized by archaea whom reside in extremely cold enivronments
Reproduction of Archaea:

Archaea reproduce asexually by multiple methods:
- binary/multiple fission

The chemical process used by archaea to reproduce is similar to the reproduction of eukarya.
Benefits of Arcahaea:

-Play a vital role in the nitrogen cycle (nitrogen fixers who have the ability to produce plenty of nitrogen that goes into the environment
-Some can also play a role in the carbon cycle (carbon fixation)
-One type of relationship is commencalism with the human body, more specifically the gut where they can help to digest food
-The methanogen group can produce biogas which can help the environment
-Some archaea are used for sewage treatment

Examples of some common archaea:

-Methanibrevibacter Smithii: Located in the human intestinal tract, it consumes products of bacterial fermentation

-Halobacterium Salinarum: Archaea who tend to be with salt, this is commonly found in salted fish and salty waters.

-Thermococcus Litoralis: Archaea whom grow near deep-sea vents

How Animals Receive Food:

Depending on the animal there are various ways it can get its food:
- Carnivores: the feeding behavior classifying those animals who consume meat (other animals)

- Herbivores: the feeding behavior classifying those animals who consume plants

- Omnivore: the feeding behavior classifying those animals who consume both plants and animals

-Scavenger: the feeding behavior classifying those animals who obtain energy through dead organisms
Characteristics of Eubacteria:

-Prokaryotic Microorganisms
-(Lacks a nucleus)
-No complex cell organelles

Basic Structure of a Bacteria Cell:

Shapes of Bacteria

-Cocci (Ball Shaped)

-Spirilla (Spirral Shaped)

-Baccili (Rod Shaped)

Bacterial Reproduction:

-Binary Fission
-A cell's DNA is copied, and the cell separates at the midline of the cell
-A cell's DNA is copied and then multiple cells are produced from the mother original cell
(For example, in asexual reproduction E. coli can double in amount within as little as 20 minutes)

- Sexual
-DNA can be inserted in the plasmid (ring of DNA) and then will be copied during reproduction
Types of Bacteria:

Gram Negative- During a gram stain test, bacteria will be pink or red

Gram Positive- During a gram stain test, bacteria will be pupleish color
The difference between gram negative and gram positive (cells typically tend to have an extra peptigoglycan membrane) bacteria is the difference between cell walls/cell membranes. The flagellum will also differ between the two types of bacteria. The reason it is important to know the difference is in order for doctors to know what types of antibiotics to prescribe.
What are probiotics?

(Good Bacteria)
These are bacteria who help maintain natural balances of microflora in the intestine.

Lactobacillus acidophilus is the probiotic found in yogurt.
Yeast is also know as a type of probiotic
Examples of Bacteria
-E. Coli
-S. Aureus
Eukaryote Tree
Plant Cell Characteristics:

-Same basic cell makeup as most eukaryotes
-Include a cell wall
-Include chloroplasts
-Classified as autotrophs because they are able to create their own energy through photosynthesis
Different Types of Plants:

-Main difference is in the methods of production, seed plants use seeds as the method through sexual reproduction. Seedless mainly rely on spores which are usually both haploid and unicellular in order to reproduce.

-As the name implies, nonvascular plants lack a vascular system in order to carry nutrients throughout the plants. Usually smaller in size, these nonvascular plants lack a true set of roots/leaves/a stem along with a xylem/floem (vascular system). Larger in size, vascular plants have a full system in order to transfer nutrients throughout the plant.

-Angiosperms have seeds which are covered typically by a fruit, while gymnosperms do not have coverings over their seeds.

These include:
-Cuticles, Stomata, Vascular System, Fruits, Seeds, Spores,Cell Walls, Pollen, etc.
Methods of Reproduction:

Have the ability to reproduce sexually and asexually.Plants may use seeds and spores as a form of sexual reproduction and plants with spores can also reproduce asexually. Budding is also another form of reproduction that can be used by plants.
Life Cycle of A Plant
Types of Fungi:

-Sac Fungi (Ascomycetes)
These include yeast, mildews, and some molds, they also are the species which cause diseases in plants such as the dutch elm disease. In these, the hypaea are divided by porous walls which allow for the cytoplasm to pass through

-Club Fungi (Basidomycetes)
These include gill fungi (mushrooms) , pore fungi, and the fungi that can cause rust in plants. The hypaea are also subdivided by porous walls, in this type of fungi two hyphae fuse and form a mycelium, this mycelium become reproduction structures.

-Zygote Fungi (Zygomycota)
These form important symbiotic relationships with plants, most who live in the soil and feed on dead matter.

-Chytrid Fungi (Chytridiomycota)
These have flagellated spores and vary little mycelium.
-Use the Flagellum and Pili to move
Fungi Cell Characteristics/ Structure:

-Many characteristics in common with plants, protists, and animals
-Chitin is in the cell wall
-The hypae is formed by a network of multicellular fungi (hypae is the filaments that fungi is made out of)
-Hyphae produce spores in the organism
-There are two types of hyphae; one with and one without septa
Methods of Reproduction: (reproduction by creating new spores)

-Various Methods
-Haploid Spores by meosis
-Mitotic cell Division
1. Plasmogamy- hyphae from differnt mycelia fuse together
2. A mycelium with differnt nuclei divide creating daughter dikaryote cells
3. Karyogamy- haploid nuclei fuse (create diploid cell)
4. Meiosis occurs to create haploid spores that spread

Fungi Benefits:

-Some can be edible such as mushrooms (source of nutrition)

-Bread is created by yeast (fermentation)

-Chemicals are created by fungus which can be used in antibiotics (penicillin)

-Some fungi can produce citric acid, used in drinks
Fungal Pathogens:

-Aspergillosis: disease caused by inhaling these spores, mostly affects those who have a weakend immune system. This illness can include infections and allergic reactions

-C. Parasitica: this causes chestnut blight and can kill tress due to its hyphae

-Candida Genus: fungal infections caused by yeasts which normally live on the skin and mucoucus membranes

-Blastomycosis: fungus which associates with decomposing matter and can cause severe lung issues when spores are inhaled
Very Diverse Life Form; Eukaryotic, Heterotrophic
A diverse life form, thesea are eukaryotic; have the ability to resemble other forms of life
Fungi-like Protists
These protists absorb their food from dead organic matter, and grouped into 2 groups
Water Mold

-Mostly small single celled organisms
-They feed on decaying matter in the water
-Contain hyphae and zoosporangium
-Some can cause disease
Slime Molds

-Thin Masses of Living Matter
-Many are single-celled organisms
-Live in cool, shady, moist places
-Produce Fruiting bodies that help spore dispersal
-Consume small bits of decaying matter
- Can cause disease such as Great Irish Potato Famine
Both lack chitin, which fungus has

-Their decomposition creates nutrient rich topsoil
-Recycle organic materials
Plant Like Protists
Known as algea, most of these are producers (photsynthesis), but others can be consumers
Red Algae

-Group contains most of the world's seaweed
-Have chlorophyll and red pigment for color
-Live in marine waters
-Max size: 1 M
-Can grow in deep water because the red pigment allows it to capture sunlight deeper than others
Brown Algae

-Usually live in colder climates
-Attach to rocks and form floating beds in the ocean
-Chlorophyll and have yellowish-brown pigment
-Large/ Grow up to 60 m
-One of the most complex algae

Green Algae

-Chlorophyll is the main pigment (hence the green color)
-Live in water and moist soil
-Can be both multicellular and unicellular
-Multicellular can grow upto 8 M
-Unicellular sometimes create colonies

-Live in salt and freshwater
-Cell Walls have silica and cellulose (very strong)
-Cells are inside a shell that fits together

-Mostly Unicellular
-Mostly in Salt Water, but can be found in fresh water/snow
-Have 2 flagella that make it spin
-Mostly use photosynthesis
-Sometimes red and can produce strong poison
-When produce fast can cause red tide- water turns red and shellfish eat all algae making them poisonous to vertebrates

-Mostly in Fresh water
-Have both plant and animal characteristics
-Use photosynthesis but have the ability to be consumers in unfavorable lighting conditions
-Some dont have chloroplasts making them full consumers of other protists or nutrients
- Move by using flagellum to push them through water
Animal Like Protists
-Feed by Phagocytosis
-Psuedopodia- use in order to move
-No Shape
-Contractile Vacuole that pumps out water
- Two Nuclei
-Covered by cilia that help move food into the cell
-Waste excreted through a pore
- Euglena
-Eyespot is pigmented and shields it from light
-Light detector brings organism towards light to assist in photosynthesis
-Pellicles are protein bands that strengthen the organism
Works Cited:

1.Waggoner, B. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/alllife/threedomains.html
2.Speer, B. R. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/plants/plantae.html
3.Vascular system. (2013). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/623731/vascular-system
4. Plant Adaptations. (n.d.). NPS. Retrieved August 24, 2013, from www.nps.gov/cany/forteachers/upload/Fift
5. Angiosperm or Gymnosperm?. (n.d.). VT Forest Biology and Dendrology. Retrieved August 24, 2013, from http://dendro.cnre.vt.edu/forsite/idtype.html
6. Introduction to the Archaea. (n.d.). UCMP - University of California Museum of Paleontology. Retrieved August 24, 2013, from http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/archaea/arcaea.html
7.archaea (prokaryote) -- Encyclopedia Britannica. (n.d.). Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved August 24, 2013, from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/32547
8. Prokaryotes, Eukaryotes, & Viruses Tutorial. (n.d.). The Biology Project. Retrieved August 24, 2013, from http://www.biology.arizona.edu/cell_bio/tutorials/pev/page3.html
9.CDC - Fungal Diseases Home. (n.d.). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved August 24, 2013, from http://www.cdc.gov/fungal/
10. Protists. (n.d.). UNM Biology Department Home Page. Retrieved August 24, 2013, from http://biology.unm.edu/ccouncil/Biology_203/summaries/ protists.html
11.Kingdom Protista | The Biology Corner. (n.d.). The Biology Corner. Retrieved August 24, 2013, from http://www.biologycorner.com/lesson-plans/phyla/kingdom-protista/
12. Classification of Living Things. (n.d.). Windows to the Universe. Retrieved August 24, 2013, from http://www.windows2universe.org/earth/Life/classification_intro.html

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