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Transcript of Cell Communication
Everything involves communication between cells
Cells communicate - sending & receiving signals
Trigger a response: transmitted across the cell membrane or by interacting with receptor proteins Cell Communication WHAT IS IT: Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC)
"Human Molecular Genetics." Tuberous Sclerosis: A GAP at the Crossroads of Multiple Signaling Pathways. Oxford University Press, 15 Oct. 2005. Web. 02 Oct. 2012. <http://hmg.oxfordjournals.org/content/14/suppl_2/R251.full>.
"Tuberous Sclerosis Fact Sheet." : National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS). National Instituted of Health, n.d. Web. 02 Oct. 2012. <http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/tuberous_sclerosis/detail_tuberous_sclerosis.htm>.
Northrup, Hope. "Summary." Tuberous Sclerosis Complex. U.S. National Library of Medicine, 13 July 1999. Web. 02 Oct. 2012. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK1220/>.
"What Is TSC?" What Is TSC? Tuberous Sclerosis Alliance, n.d. Web. 02 Oct. 2012. <http://www.tsalliance.org/pages.aspx?content=2>.
"How Marijuana Works." HowStuffWorks. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 Oct. 2012. <http://science.howstuffworks.com/marijuana3.htm>. What is it?
How does it work?
Types of signaling TSC What is it?
How it works
Symptoms - areas of tumors Marijuana What is it?
How it works - spreading of THC in the body Cell communication is how a cell gives and receives messages with the environment and itself. WHAT IS IT: HOW IT WORKS:
Signals move through the cell - protein to protein (each modifying in some way)
The proteins that relay the signal - make up a signal pathway (particular signal)
Signal - reaches its target molecule - works to change the cell's behavior CELL-TO-CELL COMMUNICATION PATHWAYS ENDOCRINE SIGNALING:
Happens when - secreted molecules diffuse into the bloodstream - trigger responses in the target cells around the body
Happens when - secreted molecules diffuse locally & trigger responses in neighboring cells Rare multi-system genetic disease
Causes non-malignant tumors to grow --> brain, and other vital organs (kidneys, lungs, eyes, & skin)
Disease - affects some severely, some not so much
All depends on the tumor's location HOW IT WORKS: AUTOCRINE SIGNALING:
Happens when - secreted molecules diffuse locally & trigger responses within the cells that secrete them (own cells)
Happens when - neurotransmitters diffuse into the bloodstream & trigger responses in cells of target tissues
Happens when - neurohormones diffuse into the bloodstream & trigger responses in target cells around the body
TSC1 (chrom.9) & TSC2 (chrom. 16) = control of cell growth and division
Mutations = loss of control, results in the formation of tumors
They act as growth supressors - inhibiting the activation of mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin )
mTOR (serine protein kinase) = receives external signals from growth factors, hormones, and proteins. Gives --> "on" or "off" signals for the cell to grow, divide, seek nutrition and use nutrition. CAUSED BY:
Defects or mutations in TSC1 and TSC2
TSC1 --> Tuberous sclerosis protein 1, hamartin.
TSC2 -->Tuberous sclerosis protein 2, tuberin.
Only one of the genes (affected) - TSC to be present. INHERITED BY:
Inherited in an autosomal dominant manner
Two thirds of cases: sporadic genetic mutations SYMPTOMS: TSC can affect various systems of the body --> signs of the disorder - depend on which system & organ is involved
Apart from tumors:
Skin abnormalities BRAIN: 3 types of tumors.
Cortical tubers (form on the surface of the brain)
Sub-ependymal nodules SEN (form in the walls of ventricles)
subependymal giant-cell astrocytomas SEGA (result from SEN, grow and block the flow of fluid in the brain - headaches, blurred vision) KIDNEY: tumors - cysts & angiomyolipomas
Kidney function is compromised
Grow bigger - pain and malfunction
Rupture - severe blood loss HEART: common tumors - rhabdomyomas
Large or multiple tumors - block circulation and cause death
Largest size at birth - eventually become smaller EYES: common tumors -phakomas
Appear as - white patches in the retina
Usually don't affect eyesight
Help diagnose the disease 1. Sub-ependymal nodules
2. Cortical tubers 1. Angiomyolipoma
2. Cysts 1. Rhabdomyoma STATISTICS About two children born each day - will have TSC
1 birth out of 6,000
1 million people worldwide (known cases)
50,000 in the USA "You made plans with your friend Jason to order some pizza, and watch the new "Transformers" movie. When you arrive at Jason's apartment you smell a distinctive odor in the hall. When you open his door, a smokey cloud lingers in the living room. Jason has invited his cousin Max over and they seem to have been smoking something. Their eyes are red, they seem extremely relaxed, and there are food and candy wrappers all over the place. Jason says that he totally forgot you were coming over, but you should stay and hang out anyway. What have Jason and Max been smoking?" Marijuana WHY IS IT MARIJUANA? Once smoked - rapidly absorbed --> reaches the brain in less than 30 seconds
Physical & psychological effects (peak) - smoking time is completed Signs of use of marijuana:
Rapid heart rate
Increased blood pressure
Increased rate of breathing
Increased appetite (the munchies)
Slow reaction time
Extreme relaxation HOW IT WORKS: Active ingredient - THC (delta-9tetrahydrocannabinol)
Brain is composed of cannabinoid receptors (charge of: coordination, learning, memory, problem-solving)
Cannabinoid receptors are activated by a neurotransmitter called anandamide (messenger molecule and plays a role in pain, depression, appetite, memory, and fertility) THC is also a cannabinoid chemical - mimics anandamide
When consumed, the cannabinoid receptors bind with the THC and neurons are activated
This is what causes the adverse effects on the mind and body
THC interferes with normal communication between neurons Main effects of marijuana on mood:
Distorted sense of time
Short term memory loss
Etc Works Cited WHAT TYPE OF SIGNALING? SYNAPTIC SIGNALING -->
Enters through the bloodstream
Affects communication between neurons - signals to target tissues (brain, muscles, glands)
WHAT TYPE OF SIGNALING? AUTOCRINE SIGNALING:
TSC 1 & TSC2 - in charge of creating proteins hamartin and tuberin
Modification in genes - leads to faulty proteins
Proteins - charge of cell division and growth Tumors - result when independent cells grow uncontrollably
Proteins are altered - molecules secrete within the cell, this leads to responses within the same cell
TSC1 and TSC2 genes - expressed in all the vital organs
Hamartin & tuberin (modified) - alter the cells, organs are affected