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Digestive System

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by

Jane Bohlander

on 12 March 2018

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Transcript of Digestive System

A Journey Through The Digestive System
Alimentary Canal
Gastrointestinal (GI) Tract
Digestive Tract
9 m
hollow tube
mouth to anus
Is food ever in your body?
Function
processing food
Digestion
Elimination
getting rid of waste
Metabolism
absorbing nutrients into the blood
Absorbtion
chemical & physical break down of food
Digestion
nutrient use by cells
primary organs
secondary organs
Mouth
Wall of Digestive Tract
Lumen
Mucosa
Submucosa
Muscularis
Serosa
epithelium
chemical & physical breakdown of food
absorbing nutrients into blood
nutrient use by cells
connective tissue
muscles
peristalsis
visceral peritoneum
mesentery
mucus membrane lining
Roof
Floor
periodontal membrane
dental caries
gingiva
cuspids
bicuspids
tricuspids
deciduous
Salivary Glands
1 L / day
salivary amylase
Pharynx
mucus membrane
respiratory & digestive
Esophagus
muscular
25 cm
pushes food toward stomach
mucus membrane
moistens food
Stomach
expands
gastroesophageal (cardiac) sphincter
3 muscle layers
hiatal hernia
gastric glands
GERD
peristalsis
Food
Bolus
Bolus
Chyme
Small Intestine
7m
3 cm
duodenum
jejunum
ileum
intestinal glands
folds
(plicae)
villi
Liver
bile
emulsify fat
eliminate cholesterol
Gallbladder
CCK
cholecystokinin
Pancreas
endocrine
pancreatic juice
digest 3 types of food
acid neutralization
Large Intestine
5 ft
6 cm
Undigested material
bacteria
salt
water
anal sphincters
Appendix
vermiform
digestion?
lymphatic
Peritoneum
serous membrane
parietal
visceral
peritoneal space
mesentery
greater omentum
Studying GI Tract w/ X-Ray
radiopaque
Digestion
prepare food for absorption
mechanical
break down
mix
move
eliminate waste
mastication
deglutition
peris
defecation
talsis
chemical
chemical reactions by enzymes in:
saliva
gastric juices
pancreatic juice
intestinal juice
Enzymes
catalyst
protein molecule
selective
-ase
Carbohydrates
starches
sugars
small intestine
*
Proteins
Lipids
Absorption
pepsin
amino acids absorbed
small intestine
pancreatic lipase
fatty acids
glycerol
lumen
blood/lymph
mucus membrane
sodium/minerals
water
monosaccharides/amino acids
fatty acids/glycerol
"water soluble" vitamins
"fat soluble" vitamins
secretion
absorption
glands
glands
blood vessels
lymphatic vessels
nerves
2 layers
~1 L
mucous cells
chief cells
parietal cells
digestive enzymes
hydrocholric acid
thin mucous
pepsin
intrinsic factor
pancreatic duct
CCK
cholecystokinin
mouth
stomach
stomach
pancreatic juice
trypsin
chymotrypsin
carboxypeptidase
small intestine
energy for cellular processes
Sources
Carbohydrates
grains/veggies - starch
meat - glycogen
sugar/molases - disaccharides
honey/fruits - monosaccharides
cellulose
Uses
cellular energy
stored as glycogen
converted to fat
Requirements
varies
@ least 125-175 g
~60% of your diet
cellular energy, building structures
Sources
Uses
Requirements
meats, eggs, milk, lut oils - saturated fats
seeds, nuts, plant oils - unsaturated
liver, egg yolk,
dairy
,
meat
- colesterol
fats - energy
cholesterol - building, hormones
not more than 30% of diet
lipids
Proteins
Sources
Uses
Requirements
break down into amino acids
Essential amino acids
Non-essential amino acids
Complete protein
Incomplete protein
cannot be made
child - 10
adult - 8
milk, meats, egg
grains, veggies, legumes, nuts/seeds
~10% of diet
Vitamins
organic compounds
fat-soluble
water-soluble
A, D, E, K
Bs, folic acid, biotin, C
Minerals
inorganic compounds
~4% body weight
teeth/bones
structural materials
major
trace
Ca, P, K, S, Na, Cl, Mg
Fe, Mg, Cu, I, Co, Zn, F, Se, Ch
Full transcript