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Unit 5 Honors 18-19

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Marika Harrison

on 11 October 2018

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Transcript of Unit 5 Honors 18-19

Levels of Organization
The biosphere is broken down into different levels of organization in order to study it




Levels of Organization
Organism
Population
Community
Ecosystem
Biome
Biosphere
Levels of Organization
Organism
- an individual living thing

Population
- group of organisms of the same species
that live in the same area at the same time

Community
- group of populations that occupy the
same area at the same time

Ecosystem
- the community
and
all the abiotic factors
that affect it

Biome
- group of ecosystems with similar climate

Biospere
- portion of earth that supports life
Community Interactions
Organisms within a community interact constantly

Three Types of Interaction
1. Competition
2. Predation
3. Symbiosis


1. Competition
occurs when more than one organism uses a resource at the same time
often results in a winner and a loser

Ecosystem Interactions
Interactions in ecosystems often involve an organism's habitat or niche

Habitat
- the area where an organism or population lives

Niche
- the role that an organism has in its environment


The Basics of Ecology
Ecology
= study of interactions among organisms with each other and their surroundings
Takes place in the
biosphere

What is the
biosphere
?
The portion of earth that supports life

Includes both
biotic factors
- living factors
abiotic

factors
- non-living factors
Ecological Pyramids
Another model to show flow of energy through an ecosystem . . . But these are not only used to study energy

Can show relative amounts of
energy, biomass, or number of organisms
at each trophic level

Biomass
= the total mass of all living matter
All three
decrease

when going up
in trophic level
Only
10% of the energy
at one trophic level gets passed on to the next trophic level
Ecology
Unit 3
Community Interactions
2. Predation
one organism pursuing and eating another organism for food

Predator = pursuer/hunter
Prey = one getting eaten
3. Symbiosis
close relationships that exist when two or more species live together

Three types:
Mutualism
Commensalism
Parasitism
Types of Symbiosis
Mutualism (+ , +)
Both organisms benefit

Commensalism (+ , o)
One organism benefits, other organism is unaffected

Parasitism (+ , -)
One organisms benefits, other organism is harmed
Flow of Energy in an Ecosystem
Energy cannot be created or destroyed -- It is only transferred!

Organisms differ in how they obtain their energy
Autotrophs
(
producers
) - organisms that produce their own energy from sunlight or inorganic molecules

Heterotrophs
(
consumers
) - organisms that get their energy from consuming other organisms

Models of Energy Flow
Energy moves through the ecosystem in one direction

Models of Energy Flow
Food Chains
Food Webs
Trophic Level
= each step in a food chain or web

Autotrophs always make up the first energy level (Producers).
Food Chains and Food Webs
Food Chain
Simple model showing one energy path through an ecosystem
Arrows represent direction of energy flow
Food Web
Complex model of many interconnected food chains showing all energy paths through an ecosystem
The Water Cycle
Water in air
condenses
into clouds
It is brought back to earth through
precipitation
It collects in rivers, streams, oceans, etc.
It
evaporates
when heated and returns to the air
It collects on surface of plants
It
transpires
when heated and returns to the air
The Carbon Cycle
Carbon in atmosphere used by plants during
photosynthesis

Plants get eaten by animals, passing carbon through food chain

Animals die and get broken down by
detrivores and decomposers
; carbon enters ground

Carbon in the ground becomes
fossil fuels


Burning fossil fuels, decomposition of organic matter, and cellular respiration all put carbon into the atmosphere
The Nitrogen Cycle
Majority of nitrogen is a gas in atmosphere
This gas can go through
nitrogen fixation
by plants or bacteria in the soil

Consumers get nitrogen by eating plants that contain it

When plants or animals decompose, nitrogen is released into soil in a form called
ammonia

Organisms in the soil then convert this ammonia into compounds that plants can use:
nitrites
and
nitrates

Some soil bacteria convert the fixed nitrogen compounds back into nitrogen gas to be released into the atmosphere -- This is
denitrification
The Phosphorous Cycle
Short-term cycle
Soil --> Producers --> Consumers --> Soil
(by decomposers)
Long-term cycle
From short-term cycle through
precipitation
and
sedimentation
to form rocks
Phosphate
in soil and water in small amounts
Limits growth of producers
Cycles in the Biosphere
Matter
= anything that takes up space and has mass

Just like energy,
matter cannot be created or destroyed
-- Only transferred or recycled!

Matter provides
nutrients
.

The most important nutrients are:
Water
,
Nitrogen
,
Carbon
,
Phosphorous

Each of these nutrients has a
biochemical

cycle
through which they are exchanged and recycled through the biosphere
Cycling
of Matter
Limiting Factors
Any abiotic or biotic factor that limits the number of, reproduction of, or distribution of organisms

Ex: Sunlight, climate, temperature, other species, food, etc.

Limiting Factors LIMIT the community

Ecological Succession
Occurs when changes in abiotic and biotic factors cause a major change in ecosystem

Two Types:
Primary Succession
= begins in an environment with exposed rock and no topsoil
Ex: Starting over completely i.e. after a volcanic eruption

Secondary Succession
= occurs when all organisms have been removes, but soil stays intact
Ex: After a fire or tornado
How Does Succession Happen?
Change in Communities Over Time
Carbon Emissions and the Greenhouse Effect
What human activities put carbon into the atmosphere?

Greenhouse Effect
: the trapping of the sun's warmth in the planet's atmosphere by the gases accumulated
It is named such because it mimics the effect of of the glass on a greenhouse

Greenhouse Gas:
a gas that contributes to the greenhouse effect by absorbing infrared radiation (heat)

Global Climate Change
:
the change in the world's climate
over time most often accredited
to high levels of greenhouse gases

What are some things that
can be done to help
prevent climate change?
Pioneer species
moves in first.
(very small and simple plants)
Then more complex plants begin to appear.
Eventually, animals infiltrate the area.


Succession can be a very long, slow process
End Point =
Climax Community
= a stable, mature community

Food for Thought
:
Humans stop succession from happening...
What happens if you don't tend to your lawn for a while?
What happens to old abandoned buildings?
Biomes
Biome
= large group of ecosystems that share the same climate and have similar types of communities

Classified primarily according to the characteristics of their plants
Also characterized by temperature, precipitation, and animal species
Population Characteristics
1.
Population Density
- the number of organisms per unit area

2.
Population Distribution
- the spacing of a population within
an area

3.
Population Ranges
- the area a population is capable of
inhabiting
Population Limiting Factors
Density-independent Factors
- any factor in the environment that do not depend on the density of the population

Usually environmental and abiotic: drought, temperature, tornadoes, etc.
Population Growth
Population Growth Rate - explains how fast a population grows



Affected by 4 Main Things:
Birth Rate
Death Rate
Emigration - individuals leaving the population
Immigration - individuals moving into the population
Population Ecology
Density-dependent Factors
- any factor in the environment that depends on the density of the population

Usually biotic: predation, parasitism, competition, disease
Population Limiting Factors
What happens if birth rate is higher death rate?
What happens if death rate is higher than birth rate?
What if emigration exceeds immigration?
What if immigration exceeds emigration?
Two Types of Growth
Exponential Growth
Slow growth followed by rapid growth
J shaped curve (graph)

Logistic Growth
Growth slows and levels off after a period of rapid growth
S shaped curve (graph)

Levels off at
Carrying Capacity
= maximum # individuals of a species that the environment can support
Human Population
Human population is experiencing exponential population growth, but the growth rate has slowed
Human Population
Age structure diagrams are used to study the population in set age ranges by gender

Determine if a population is experiencing rapid, slow, zero, or negative growth
Biodiversity
The variety of life in an area that is determined by the number of species in that area

Is a forest with 300 species or a forest with 5,000 species more biodiverse?

The more
biodiverse
an ecosystem is, the more
stable
it is!
Why???
Threats to Biodiversity
The world's biodiversity is decreasing! . . . Why?
What is causing the decrease in Biodiversity?
High extinction rates - due to changing environment

Shortage of natural resources
Excessive use

Habitat loss - destroying natural habitats
Habitat fragmentation - breaking up habitats with roads, etc.

Pollution - increased CO2, acid rain, burning fossil fuels, etc.

Invasive species
- a non-native species introduced to a new area where it causes ecological harm to natural ecosystem
Ecology is Amazing...
Biodiversity and Conservation
Conservation of Biodiversity
Renewable resources
- replaced naturally faster than are used
Ex: solar energy

Sustainable use
- not using too much too fast

Protected Areas
- National Parks and Reserves

Urban Ecology
studies - ecology in context of an urban area
Ex: Corridors between habitat fragments
What determines the carrying capacity?
Largely due to human impact!
Herbivores
- eat plants
ex: cow

Carnivores
- eat other heterotrophs
ex: lion

Omnivores
- eats autotrophs and heterotrophs
ex: bear

Detrivores
- eat dead matter
ex: worms

Decomposers
- use enzymes to break down dead organisms
ex: fungi
Heterotrophs
0:15 - 1:33
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