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What is Globalization? -the good, the bad, and the ugly

A general overview of globalization: its meanings and origins in different contexts.
by

Krisztina E. Lengyel Almos

on 6 September 2016

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Transcript of What is Globalization? -the good, the bad, and the ugly

What is Globalization?
Globalization
is a large-scale integration
process
and used in many contexts, such as...
Globalization is being shaped by
technological change
Involves the reconfiguration of states & power structure
Goes together with regionalization (
glocalization
)
Alters social relations (intensity, extensity, velocity, impact)
It is uneven (winners vs. losers)
Creates new tensions
Consensus
we talk about globalization
- since 5000 BC - cross-cultural trade, technologies, mass migrations, world religions

- Key words: global flows, movements, widening cooperation & spread of new technologies

Example: the wheel was
discovered in China and later
used in Europe as well.
In a historical context...
In economic context...
Is is a political concept?
In a cultural context...
Different disciplines and experts give different answers:
we talk about globalization
- since people go from one place to another....
we are all migrants

- since >1900s - space and place reduced,
relativity of space

- Key words: global-local distances shrank, transportation (on foot, on animals, by boat, by train, by car, by airplane, by space shuttle)

Example: by air we can reach any corner of the world within a day

Note: whatever and whoever is
closer
to us, affect us more & we pay more attention to it.
Geography
matters a lot, despite of cyber-connectedness.
In a geographical context...
Airline traffic around the World
Definitions

"
Similarity of economic conditions
and
policies
across national boundaries"
Gray, H.P.

"
Accelerated movement
across national and regional barriers of
economic "goods"
, i.e. people, products, capital, especially intangible forms of capital (technology, control of assets)" Oman, Charles 1994

"Economic globalization refres to the intensification and stfrecthing of economic connections across the globe."
Steger, Manfred B.
In economics:
In history:
"Globalization is a long term historical process of growing worldwide interconnectedness"
Nederveen Pieterse, 1995
"Globalization...refers both to the compression of the world and the intensification of
consciousness
of the world as a whole.
" Robertson, Robbie, 1992
In sociology:
Globalization 1.0
- between 1492 and 1800 Colonization - countries move towards each other (mass movement & shrinking of the world) - physical power & sailing capacity

Globalization 2.0
- 1800s- 2000 - key agents: multinational companies -global markets develop

Globalization 3.0
- from 2000 on - key agents: individuals connectedness & collaboration
In Thomas L. Friedman´s view:
The World is Flat, Friedman, 2005
Human Integration
simply put...
Three paradigms:

1) Cultural Differentialism
(national, language, ethnic, political, religious) - lasting difference -
"Clash of civilizations" - rivalry & conflict, natural fault lines

2) Cultural Convergence

- which brings along standardization & uniformization => growing of the sameness, e.g. McDonaldization, Barbification, CNNization, infantilization

3) Hybridization
(cultural mixing and new mixtures are born)- "global mélange"

Nederveen Pieterse, 2009
leaking of state authority, downwards
decentralization
leaking of state authority, upwards
formation of international public sector
pooling of sovereignty - regional, international, supranational
"post-international politics" - the entry of non-state sector, NGOs
State leaner but more active
Democratization (human rights, cross-border civic activism)
In a political context...
Is it good?
Controversy
Is globalization essentially economic or multidimensional?
What is globalization?
Is globalization a recent or a long-term historical
process
? or is it a
condition
?
Does globalization exist or is it rhetoric, "globaloney"?
Is globalization neoliberal capitalism?
Is globalization manageable?
Transportation
Communication (being informed of other markets)
World product
Global production (supply-chains)
Global markets & TRADE
Global Marketing
Global demand (product & labor)
Global Capitalism
(CAPITAL MOVEMENTS)
International lending (debt-problem)
agents:

private sector (MNC, international banking system, small companies & joint ventures) &
public sector (countries),

international economic forums

(WTO)
intertwined: even in economic crises (Great Recession 2008)
In a economic context...
there are many
winners
(who are connected and can adapt fast & impact others)
many
losers
:
who are
not
connected (isolated) or occupied with other basic problems, such as disease, lack of food & water & energy, no means of entering the global network (note: they may still benefit from globalization, via aid organization and other opportunities)
there are many
unintended consequences
(global warming, awareness of inequalities, etc.)
Since its effects are
uneven....
there is no clear conclusion:
Can it help to end poverty?
Thank you!
Sources:
"Globalization & culture: Global Mélange", by Jan Nederveen Pieterse, 2009
"The World is Flat: A Brief History of the Twenty-First century", by Thomas L. Friedman, 2005
"What do we know about globalization?", by Guillermo de la Dehesa, 2007
"Macrowikinomics", by D. Tapscott & A. Williams, 2010
"Globalization and Ist Discontents", Joseph E. Stiglitz, 2002
...ideas

travel fast in time & space...
"Assymetries of information"- Joseph. E Stiglitz
Yes, it can be good, because...
it can promote economic growth by...
1. Collaboration
2. Openness
3. Sharing
4. Integrity
5. Interdependence
Wikinomics, D. Tapscott & A. Williams
http://financesonline.com/how-iphone-is-made/
How and where iphone is made?
Full transcript