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Benthic Biome

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Samantha Savage

on 25 April 2014

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Transcript of Benthic Biome

Benthic Biome Climate and Elevation Climate Elevation Flora and Fauna Flora Fauna 5 Interesting Facts #1 #2 #3 #4 #5 The climate of the Benthic Zone is mainly cold. The average temperature is 41 degrees farenheight. There is so much pressure that if you were down there you would explode. The temperature is cold because the sunlight cannot reach this layer. The Benthic Zone is right under the Photic Zone and right above the Abyussal Zone. It ranges from 700 to 10,000 feet under the sea surface. The organisms decrease as the pressure increases. The pressure increases as you go down. Benthic means the ground floor and that is what this zone is. There are mountains, trenches, volcanoes, flat muddy areas, sandy areas and rocky areas in the Benthic zone. Inhabited by organisms that can tolerate cool temperatures and low oxygen levels. Flatfish Unlike fish that spend their time swimming, Flatfish are very dense and have negative buoyancy, allowing them to effortlessly lie on the bottom or bury themselves. Other adaptions include a flattened body shape, having both eyes on one side of their head, and different color on each side of their bodies. Having a different color on each side of their body, bottom side being pale and the top side being camoflauge, allows them to easily hide and capture their prey. Sea Stars Sea stars are symmetric and have no head, tail, and have a mouth on the bottom side of them. Some of these creatures are carnivorous and eat things like molluscs and sea urchins, but most are scavengers and eat things like algae. Sea stars have vessels similar to blood vessels that pump water from the ocean using a porous plate found on its backside. By pumping water, the sea star can keep their mobility underwater. Flatworms Flatworms have flat bodies. They do not need a respiratory system because they absorb oxygen through their bodies. They are parasites and get their food by attaching to an animal and feed on their blood, tissue fluids, or pieces of cells. Their flat body also allows them to glide through water easily on stream floors. Sea Urchins Sea Urchins are much like sea stars. They are divided into five parts and are symmetrical and they pump water just like sea stars to stay mobile. They are covered in spikes to protect themselves from predators. Sometimes these spikes can be poisonous. Sea urchins attach themselves to hard surfaces and don't move much. Most of them are herbivores and eat things like algae and sea weed. Giant Clams Giant clams are really interesting - they use photosynthesis, they have primitive eyes and an interesting variation in shell design. It gets its nutrition from algae that lives on its outer surface. It has a symbiotic relationship with the algae.
Seaweed is a marine algae with very long strands that have a large number of leaves. Seaweed is usually light green in color, the color can range from brown to reddish. This plant can live in very deep waters. It performs photosynthesis by using blue light, which is a type of sunlight. It has strong roots that can withstand strong ocean currents. Seaweed
Phytoplankton rely on sunlight to photosynthesize, so they are generally found in shallower ocean waters. However, as the tiny plants die, they drift down to the deeper levels of the sea and are eaten by the fish and other animals that live down in the Benthic zone. Invertebrates, such as the tiny crustaceans known as amphipods, are among the organisms that rely on the sinking phytoplankton for survival. Phytoplankton are by far the most abundant type of plant in the ocean. This plant grows in large clumps on the sea floor, creating a virtual meadow in the sand. They produce both oxygen and biomass, which is type of biological material created from living or dead organisms. The leaves of the Poseidonia are green, long, thin and bladelike, and the plant produces both flowers and fruit. The flowers and the fruit are both green, and the fruit looks like an olive. This plant needs light penetration to survive, and it can die off if the water is too cloudy. It is in the group of Potamogetonaceae which is the only family of macrophytobenthos that can produce flowers and fruit. Poseidonia Large kelp forests need temperatures below 68 degrees Fahrenheit to grow. Kelp leaves or blades are wide, long, and they have a node at the base of them that connects the blades to the stalk. This node helps keep the plant standing straight in the water. Kelp has roots that dig into the rocky sea bottom and hold the plant in place. Kelp can be brown or green. It is algae. Kelp Turtle Grass Turtle grass grows in meadows. Extensive meadows can be formed on muddy sand, coarse sandy and clayey seabeds. It cannot grow in fresh water. Turtle grass and other seagrasses form meadows which are important habitats and feeding grounds. In the spring and early summer, many turtle grass plants produce small flowers at the base of the leaves. The grass is eaten by turtles, herbivorous parrotfish, surgeonfish and sea urchins while the leaf surface films are a food source for many small invertebrates. Flatworm
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