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Quotation, Quotation, Citation
Transcript of Quotation, Quotation, Citation
Quotations and How to Use Them
Quotations Need a Framework
Usually, it is good to frame your quotations.
Surround every major quotation with a frame explaining whose words they are, what the quotation means, and how the quotation relates to your own text. When you quote what
say, it must always be connected to what
1. Introduce or lead into your quote
2. Say the quote
3. Explain how the quote relates to your thoughts
Integrating Quotes Smoothly
Create a clause beginning with that:
Johnson argues against this common claim, writing that "whenever we torture or mistreat prisoners, we are in the wrong" (Mae 4).
Introduce a quotation with a colon:
Walt Whitman, the great poet, sang its praises: "It's our game, the American game" (Bernard 1).
Weave quoted words or phrases into your own sentence:
The idea that "childhood rebellion" is "proper" separates the two authors" (Samson 8).
Nifty Insights into In-Text Citation
Quoting without mentioning the author's name first means including both the author's last name and page number of the quotation in the citation:
Understanding how well educational goals are achieved is of ongoing interest to educators and “[t]herein lies the wellspring of an institutional commitment to assessment—intellectual curiosity about what and how well our students learn” (Maki 3).
If you introduce the author first, only the page number of the quotation is needed:
However, as Peggy L. Maki brings out in her book
Assessing for Learning
, “More than a process of ingesting information, learning is a multidimensional process of making meaning” (2).
If you cite more than one work by the same author, include a shortened version of the title:
"When old paint becomes transparent, it shows the artist's original plans" (Hellman,
To cite a source by 2 or 3 authors, include all the authors' last names:
The Authority-Rebel "tends to see himself as superior to others" (Dyal, Corning, and Willows 4).
But, quotes are orphans—words that have been taken from their original contexts and that need to be integrated into their new textual surroundings.
Consider this paragraph in which the quote is not properly framed:
Susan Bordo writes about women and dieting, "Fiji is just one example. Until television was introduced in 1995, the islands had no reported cases of eating disorders. In 1998, three years after programs from the United States and Britain began broadcasting there, 62 percent of the girls surveyed reported dieting” (Bordo 149-50).
I think Bordo is right. Another point Bordo makes is that...
"I'm so very lonely without context..."
Here is the previous quote, properly framed:
The feminist philosopher Susan Bordo deplores Western media’s obsession with female thinness and dieting. Her basic complaint is that increasing numbers of women across the globe are being led to see themselves as fat and in need of a diet. Citing the islands of Fiji as a case in point, Bordo notes that “until television was introduced in 1995, the islands had no reported cases of eating disorders. In 1998, three years after programs from the United States and Britain began broadcasting there, 62 percent of the girls surveyed reported dieting” (149-50). Bordo’s point is that the Western cult of dieting is spreading even to remote places across the globe. Ultimately, Bordo complains, the culture of dieting will find you, regardless of where you live.
Some writers assume quotes speak for themselves. Because the meaning of a quotation is obvious to them, they think readers will clearly see what they mean if they just choose a quotation and insert it in the text.
What about Block Quotations?
For MLA style, use the block form for prose or poetry quotations of four or more typed lines. Indent the quotation an inch from the left margin.
Notice, there are no quotation marks around a block quotation and no period after the in-text citation at the end.
Notice the period does not come after the end of the sentence but after the citation.
The Academic Version
A little video about Quote Bombs
A short video about properly framing quotations