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Interprofessionalism

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Alex Isaacs

on 26 March 2014

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Transcript of Interprofessionalism

Interprofessionalism
Alex Isaacs, PharmD, BCPS
Pharmacotherapy Resident
Butler University/IU Health

Objectives
1. Define "interprofessionalism".
2. List members of the multidisciplinary team
3. Describe the training requirements for other healthcare members.
4. Explain the roles/responsibilities of other multidisciplinary team members.
5. Develop effective strategies to work well within the team structure.
Objectives
1. Define "interprofessionalism"
2. List members of the multidisciplinary team
3. Describe the training requirements for non-pharmacy healthcare members
4. Explain the roles/responsibilities of other multidisciplinary team members
5. Develop strategies to work effectively within the team structure
Importance
World Health Organization: "Working together and effectively through communication and collaboration strengthen and improve the healthcare system"

Goal is to provide optimal patient care and improve patient outcomes

Where does interprofessionalism exist?
Who are members of the interprofessional team?
Physicians (MD/DO)
Training:
Undergraduate degree
Professional school (didactic, experiential)
M.D. vs. D.O.
3-4 pharmacology/therapeutics courses
Residency (length varies)
Fellowship (optional)
Hierarchy:
Staff/attending, fellow, resident, intern, medical student
Role:
Evaluate, diagnose, and prescribe
Physician Assistants (PA)
Training:
2-4 years of pre-requisite courses
3 years of professional schooling to obtain a master's degree with 1 year experiential
Optional residency
At Butler, PA students have 2 semesters of pharmacology and 2 semesters of therapeutics
Role:
Similar role to nurse practitioners
Collaborative practice agreements are required
Diagnose and prescribe
For DEA numbers, must practice for 1 year before given prescriptive authority
Nurse Practitioners (NP)
Training:
1-2 years of additional training to obtain a masters of science in nursing
Optional residency (focused training)
Has to include at least 1 pharmacology/ therapeutics course (2 hour minimum in Indiana)
Role:
Collaborative practice agreement with a licensed practitioner
Diagnose and prescribe
No limit on prescriptive authority if registered for a DEA number
Occupational Therapists (OT)
Training:
6 years of training to complete a bachelor's and master's degree
No pharmacology/therapeutics courses required
Role:
Assist in patient independence and self-confidence
Help patients adapt to home and work environments after a medical injury or disease
Physical Therapists (PT)
Training:
6 years of training with undergraduate degree and a master's degree
Usually 1-2 therapeutics course focusing on musculoskeletal medications
Role:
Assist in ambulation
Utilize stretches and exercises to improve mobility, functionality, and quality of life after an injury/disease
Determine whether patient is safe to go home or to a rehabilitation center
Respiratory Therapists (RT)
Training:
2-3 year associate's degree at minimum
Most jobs require a bachelor's degree
Curriculum consists of 1-2 respiratory pharmacology courses
Role:
Monitor respiratory status
Breathing techniques/assessments
Administration of respiratory medications
Main controller of ventilator
Pharmacy Technicians
Training:
On the job training or a 1 year associate's degree
Role:
Medication dispensing
Customer service
Medication histories
Care Management
Members:
Social workers
Nurses
Training:
Social workers complete a bachelor's degree in the humanities
Optional master's degree (MSW)
Role:
Help patients with setting up appointments, medication assistance programs, and other medical necessities
Medical Assistants (MA)
Training:
None required but there are optional training programs (Ex. Kaplan)
Role:
Administrative responsibilities
Insurance
Scheduling appointments
Medical records
Vital signs
Dieticians
Training:
4 year bachelor's degree in dietetics or nutrition
Optional master's of science in nutrition
Role:
Evaluate patient nutritional status
Recommend diets
Malnourished patients
Diet restrictions (diabetes, HF, etc.)
Enteral/parenteral nutrition
Possibly in conjunction with pharmacists
Speech Therapists
Training:
Bachelor's degree in communication followed by a master's degree in speech pathology
No pharmacology/therapeutics courses required
Role:
Treat communication and swallowing disorders
Perform swallowing studies to know aspiration risk
Conclusion
Interprofessionalism is vital for safe and effective patient care

Collaboration and communication are vital for the success of the team

Patient is the priority!
Nurses
Nurse Aides
Training:
Minimum of 75 hours of vocational training
Role:
Assist with documentation and scheduling
Answer call lights
Transportation
Patient hygiene
Licensed Practical Nurses (LPN)
Training:
1 year certification
Role:
Measure vital signs
Collect labs
Administer medications
Registered Nurses (RN)
Training:
2 year associate's degree focusing on technical skills and theory
Role:
Patient primary contact
Collects vital signs and labs
Administers medications
Maintains IV access
Relays information on patient status to the medical team
Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN)
Training:
4 year bachelor degree with 2 years focusing on didactics and 2 years on technique/skill
Role:
Similar to RN responsibilities
Primes nurses to become managers and potentially nurse practitioners
Tips for Rotation
Develop relationships with other healthcare professionals

Focus on medication therapy

Be confident and provide evidence/rationale behind your recommendation
Interprofessional Arenas
Hospitals
Interprofessional rounds
Operational pharmacy
Ambulatory care settings
Collaborative practice agreements
Patient centered medical home
Community pharmacy
Institutional/corporate committees
Professional organizations
Autonomy

Misunderstanding of expertise/role

Communication issues

Ineffective leadership

Conflict
Obstacles
Pharmacists
Training:
Pre-requisite courses followed by 4 years of pharmacy school
Role:
Medication dispensing
Patient education
Medication therapy management
Collaborative practice agreements enable pharmacists to adjust doses and order monitoring labs
Interprofessionalism on Rotations
Interprofessionalism varies at each site
Understand your role
Communicate after completing a task
Be respectful and work to collaborate with other healthcare professionals
Difficult situations
Conflict (practitioner, patient, etc.)
Patient death
Questions?
Definitions
Multidisciplinary: implies several different professional groups working together

Interprofessionalism: the adaptation of roles, knowledge, skills and responsibilities to adjust to those of other professional groups
What is "interprofessionalism"?
Effective Interprofessionalism
Encourage open communication
Collaboration and trust
Guidance for each member's role
Continued educational opportunities
The patient and their well-being must be the focus of the team!
Patient Case
KT is a 33 year old male who presents to your hospital with multiple injuries from a motor vehicle accident.
How does each profession contribute to KT's care?
Full transcript