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Socilogical Perspectives Within Health and Social Care

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Rory Parkinson

on 7 October 2013

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Transcript of Socilogical Perspectives Within Health and Social Care

What is:
Primary Socisation?
Seconary Socisation?
Name 4 social structures
The Family
The Economy
Political system
Health care
Social Class
(Socio-economic Class)
A status hierarchy in which individuals and groups are classified on the basis of esteem and prestige acquired mainly through economic success and accumulation of wealth. Social class may also refer to any particular level in such a hierarchy.
Upper Class
Middle Class
Working and Lower Class
Large Majoriy
Small minority
Basic Class Hierchey
Now Stand Up!
Can you relate
to a Class?
Write your name on the Class you think you are
Was it Difficult to choose a class?
Do you belive we still have a class system?
Identify and Discuss Social Classes
Analyse Occupations and social status in relation to class
Reflect on own class
Identify and Discuss Poverty
Not always reflected by the amount of income, eg someone on jobseekers allowance in a pleasant area with support nearby.
The poverty line is the minimum provision needed to maintain health and working efficiency, eg a basic diet, enough clothes to keep warm and dry, average rent paid.

Maslow Hierarchy of Needs (Basic Needs)

Relates to general expectations of society as compared to other people. What do you think people expect now that they wouldn’t expect 20 years ago and 40 years ago?
Absolute Poverty
There is not one Clear definition of poverty
Relative poverty
Consensual poverty
Social Class
Sociological Perspectives Within Health and Social Care
Social Roles & Social control
All the worlds a stage,

And all the men and women merely players:

They have there exits, and their entrances;

And one man in his time plays many parts.
William Shakespear 'As you like it'
The Sociological Dictionary and Glossory
The expected patterned behavior of an
individual occupying a particular
status position.
Social Role Definition
Proprity owner
(And Many More!)
Whats your Role?
Rally Robin!
1 minute to write down as many roles that you think apply to you
Where your roles similar or diffrent?
Did any of the roles within your group that suprised you?
Where there any obscure roles?
Social Role Conflict
Role conflict is a conflict among the roles corresponding to two or more statuses
E.g. If a college student attending a social function encounters his teacher as a fellow guest, he will have to determine whether to relate to the teacher as a student or a peer.
Can you identify any Role conflict you may have?

Can you think of any other Role conflicts?
Watch the video and answer the questions
Social Control
The enforcement of conformity by society upon its members, either by law or by social pressure.
The process of internalizing the norms of society and accepting them as valid.

Society's effort to bring those who "stepped outside the lines" back into line.

Interpersonal actions between and among people to remind someone that their behavior upsets or pleases them.

An effort to bring about conformity to the law by agents of the Criminal Justice System.

a huge territory of noncriminal, non penal bureaucratic social control, administered by the government, which attempts to deal with the troublesome behavior of persons under their authority.
Forms of Social Control
Social Norms
The way that society expects social roles to act.

E.g a police man is good and can be trusted, not corrupt
Explore Sociological Perspectives
Identify and discuss Social Roles, Conflict, Norms and Controls
Analyses own and others Social Roles and conflicts
Dr Zimbardo's Stanford Prison Experiment
What is a Social Role?
One example of a Social Role?
What is meant by Social Control?
Two methods of "informal" social control
Two methods of "formal" social control
Describe and identify key concepts of Functionalism
Discuss how the "Sick Role" effects societies institutions
Identify and Discuss Criticisms of Functionalism Perspective
What is the function?
Sociological Perspectives
Sociological perspectives are used to
understand societies and the behaviour of individuals in Society
These perspectives help explain the impact of social life on health and well being
What are the main institutions in our modern society?
Structuralists are interested in describing and understanding the main institutions of societies
Health Services
How do they relate to each other?
How do they influence and mould our behaviour?
consider your social institutions and explain what their functions are in society
All societies are made up of key institutions, with key functions (jobs) to perform.

Institutions of society work in harmony with each other, making specific and clear contributions to the smooth running of society
This is 'norm', he's not feeling well

What Role is he playing?
What happens to the the social institutions if norm is playing the 'Sick Role'
It is assumed that in a normal society people should be fit and healthy and contribute to society.

When people are ill they do not contribute to the running of society.
People who are sick need to make an effort to get better and help once again in the running of society.
People who are ill, are deviants – they have deviated from the social norm.
Dysfunctional for Individual

And so.

Dysfunctional to Society
Functional for individual

and so

Functional for society
Sick Role
Illness is dysfunctional for society, society must establish boundaries which determine who can legitimately play the sick role and who cannot.

To enter the sick role you must show evidence of your sickness.
Anyone who does not return to society from the sick role, after they have recovered, is termed as malingerer or sponge.
Within the UK, to play the sick role, a medical professional must legitimise the illness.
This is accomplished through a series of negotiations (consultation) between the individual and the medical professional.
Does society always work for the good of all? Education system, racism.

Do we all share the same values and beliefs?

Is all our behaviour the result of socialisation? What about individual choice?

Is society always a positive place to live?
Society makes the individuals

Individuals do not make society

The belief that there is a general agreement in society of values and beliefs.
Value Consensus:
Socialisation and social order:
We are socialised by social institutions into having shared norms, values and beliefs and this is what keeps social order.

Do you think we have a common value system in our society?
Make a list of the values you think are most important in society, Top 5
Can you are agree on a common values system to which most people subscribed?
Which one of these is not a social institution:
1. Religion

2. Factory's
3. Health services

4. Family
Macro (big) Picture
Micro (small)
What is a Function of Education?
1. Report the news 2. Produce individuals for working life

3. Look after the medical 4. Enforce peoples faith
welfere of people
Talcott Parsons is a well published functionalist and tells us:
Who is a well know Functionalist?
1. Talcott Parsons 3. Karl Marx

2. Joseph Murray 4. Fredric Jameson
To play the long term sick role what must we do in our society?

1. Ring in sick

3. Have your manager to
assess if you can work
2. Be assessed by a medical
professional and given a 'sick note'

4. Tell the Job centre
Functionalists believe in what type of social control?
1. Formal

2. Informal
Cereal packet family

Nuclear family


step families

Extended family

Single parent family

Same sex families

Single Person Family
Identify the different functions of the family
Identify the different types of family
The primary socialisation of children
The stabilisation of adult personalities – in a complex, stressful and demanding world the family provides warmth and emotional security, especially as Parsons saw it, for the male breadwinner.
Talcott Parsons tell us about the 2 functions of the family
The sex and the expression of Sexuality

The reproduction and rearing children

Socialisation into the norms of society

To provide economically for the family
George Murdoch tells us about
the four functions of the family
It consists of two parents who are married (opposite sex) and two dependent children (a girl & boy).
A heterosexual couple with children who are in a relationship and are not married.
People who have remarried or are cohabiting and have formed what is referred to as a _________________ family with step-parents and stepchildren.
This family is a family consisting of parents and children, along with either: Grandparents and/or Aunts and uncles.
Two people of the same sex cohabiting or married.
1. Cohabitation Family

2. Nuclear Family
3. Multi-cultural Family

4. Cereal Packet Family
1. Cereal Family

2. Nuclear Family
3. Cohabitation Family
4. Reconstituted Family
1. Cohabitation Family

2. Extended Family
3. Same sex Family

4. Single Parent Family
1. Nuclear Family

2. Reconstituted Family
3. Extended Family

4. Cohabitation Family
Everyone Shout it Out!

Believed that these two groups would always be in conflict
Marxism looks at inequalities within health

Lower class groups (prols) have higher rates of ill health and mortality

Inequalities in health can be explained in the following ways

Genetic – certain illnesses are linked to Lower Classes
Cultural factors – the behaviour of certain ethnic groups, eg higher perinatal mortality rates among Asian mothers due to low antenatal uptake

Material factors – More likely to be poorly paid, live in poor housing, unemployed or in dangerous occupations
Identify Marx’s two classes

Identify the criticisms of Marxism
Discuss Health in relation to Marxism
Identify and discuss Hierarchical and egalitarian society
Identify Key points of Socialism
Bourgeoisie or capitalists who owned factories. This is the minority group who have all the power
Proletariat (Prols) are much larger, poorer group of people who are the workers and under the control of the bourgeoisie
Bourgeoisie want higher profits and prols want higher wages which eats into profits
Believed that although individual behaviour was shaped by society the economic system defined society and people’s place in it
Marxism is a philosophy derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels
(communist manifesto)
He believed that there was two classes
 Are there equal opportunities for all?

 Or do some people have advantages over others?

 If there are inequalities in society what could be done to reduce them?
Marxist View
Functionalism = Consensus Theory

Think about the Riots

Why did they happen?
Be a Marxist
Capitalism - A concept that society is driven by economical profit. Focusing on private ownership of companies which sole purpose is to make money

Socialism - A concept that society is driven for the benefit of society. socialists believe that economical stability for individual needs and companies are not run for great profit.
What is the NHS?
What medical problems does it deal with?

List 5
How is the NHS funded?
How does it work?

Think about the process of money
Is the NHS a Capitalist or Socialist infrastructure?
How does the NHS benefit the Proles?
How does the Bourgeois benefit from the NHS if it isn't profit driven?
Navarro (1978) argues that capitalism makes people ill and doctors are agents of social control as they decide who is able or unable to work.

The medical profession is seen as a major consumer of the products of capitalism

Can you think what these products are?
Neo (New) Marxists
Prols = Many
Egalitarians believe that all humans are equal in fundamental worth or social status,
All people should be treated as equals and have the same political, economic, social, and civil rights
positive attitude towards group decision-making
negative attitude towards rules and principles
Path to Pure socialism
Kibbutz Societies
Egalitarian Society
Hierarchical society
Would you like to live in a Kibbutz society?
Like functionalists Marxism says that we don’t have free will because we have socialised values.

These days employers and employees do share common interests, Marx doesn’t think so.

Marxist sees the economy as the institution that drives all, but what about the family, race and religion in moulding behaviour?
What are the two classes that Marx talks about?
Is Marxism a consensus or conflict theory?
What is capitalism driven by?
Is the NHS a capitalist or socialist concept?
How do the bourgeoisie benefit from the NHS other than free health care?
What is the name of the Neo-Marxist we looked at?
In an Egalitarian society people are said to be?
What is the name of the Egalitarian society we looked at?
Identify key points of Feminism
investigate the roles women play
Describe and discuss the 'Dual Role'
Relate the feminist approach to 'family' and 'health
What is
Conflict Theory
Feminists fight for the equality of women
Recognises and critiques male supremacy combined with efforts to change it. (Patriarchal society)
Believes that society is based on conflict
They believe women are disadvantaged in society
They argue that women should share equally in society’s opportunities and scare resources.
Woman of today?
They could not vote
In 19th century women had no rights – if they inherited money or property they had no give it to their husband when they married
They could not take out a bank account or loan
If they divorced they had no right to see their children
Women became:
But when the war was over they were expected to give up their jobs for men returning from the front
Members of the armed forces
Factory workers
Bus conductors
Farm Workers (Land Army)
Special Operations Executives (Spies and radio operators in occupied countries)
Nowadays many women are said to have a
dual role
, meaning they work outside the home, and also still do most of the housework and childcare

More recently women are seen as Superwomen, in that they are also taking on traditional male roles such as car maintenance and DIY

Say that men dominate and oppress women and that the only solution is for men and women to live separately

Has feminism gone too far? Do women really need men?
Types of Feminism
See women, especially working class women, as being oppressed by capitalism and patriarchal societies

Women produce and rear children to become the next generation of workers
Marxist feminists
Radical feminists
Liberal feminists
Argue that legislation is the only way to improve the rights of women?
Can you think of any changes that have benefited women in the past 40 years?
Feminist View on Health
Depression and stress common amongst women due to increased pressures, but treated with medication
Medicine dominated by men
Medicalisation of childbirth – disempowering women
Drug industry less interested about promoting male contraceptive pill
Apparently I'm being 'held back by society's constrictions' what ever that means..
Emma's Results
David's Results
Rory's Results
What type of theory is feminism?

1. Conflict 2. Consensus
1. Dance
2. Speak in public
3. Open a bank account
4. Stay up after 12am
What couldn't a woman do in the 19th century
what do feminist fight for?
1. New pair of shoes every month

2. Equal right

3. To have as many children as they want

4. The right to Parrrrrrrrrrrrrrty!
1. Bus conductor

2. Welder

3. Farm workers

4. All the above?
What jobs did women do during the war?
What is the meaning of 'dual role'?
1. You are a medieval knight

2. You play more than one role in your life

3. You only play one role in your life

4. Your role in Society is to slap people in the face with a glove and ask them to a duel!
Identify key concepts within interactionism
Explain and discuss social areas of interaction in relation to Interactionism
Identify and discuss key points of Interactionism in relation to health
Interactions between people / groups make society via meanings and interpretation
Micro theory
Person make society through interactions
The concept of self and how we perceive ourselves in the social world.
Do not believe people are ‘programmed’ by the socialisation process
Emphasis is on thoughts, choices and actions of individuals.
Society is the result of these interactions.
Believe the person will choose their own rules and how to behave.
Labeling people into a role is crucially important to Interactionist approaches
Society is constructed by peoples meanings and interpretations
People or rather groups of people decide on norms, values and interpretations of events and this becomes society
Social norm of the role is important
Social role important to them as this defines the context of the interaction.
What roles were everyone was playing?
What social institution is this scene set?
What negotiation took place?
Did the interpretation have its desired affect?
What roles were everyone was playing?
What social institution is this scene set?
What negotiation took place?
Did the interpretation have its desired affect?
The impact of illness on a person’s self image and any relationships.
Did the 'patient' create a label for themselves?
if so what was it?
Did the 'patient' create a label for themselves?
if so what was it?
The processes that lead a person to define themselves as ill – so it varies as to who will or wont class themselves as ill AND who will or wont seek medical/professional help.
The interaction and negotiations that take place between the professional and the patient – should this patient be signed off or not?
Criticism of this approach is that by concentrating on just relationships, it ignores the real causes of ill health such as medical explanations or environmental factors.
Interactionism and it's relationship to health
Post Modernism
New Right
Identify Key points in post modernism

explain the post modernism in relation to health

Identify how collectivism relates to health

Identify how New Rights relates to health
Get your Phones out!
What is the Capital City of Qatar?
Who was the President of U.S.A. in the Year 1800?
What is the Number 1 brand in the world now in 2012?
Logos Quiz App
We consume the products, symbols and signs of a globalised economy…but we provide our own meanings to these.
“we are what we consume..and our identities are formed and changed through acts of consumption”
Jean Baudrillard
Domestic arrangement are varied so we can no longer talk about the ‘typical family’.
Globalisation and it's results
Local traditions have been eroded.
We live in an ‘information rich’ world.
Anyone can obtain information on anything from anywhere at anytime!
The ‘meanings’ of things have now become more individualised.
Stresses the uncertain nature of societies.
Changes in the welfare state via Constructivism and New Right
Believes changes have been made in society, for example shift in work patterns.
Funded through taxation and National Insurance.
For each of these think about what systems were put in place to overcome them
A political response to provide care and support for the vulnerable.
An approach to providing health and social care services that are underpinned by the government.
Beveridge’s five giant evils
Squalor (poor housing)
Want (poverty)
Disease (Ill-health)
Idleness (unemployment)
Ignorance (inadequate education)
Collectivism –paid for by taxes and NI
State Led
Free at the point of delivery
Costs would go down once everyone’s immediate health needs met
Principles of the

The collectivist approach was unchallenged until the Conservative Party came into power in 1979

Headed by Margaret Thatcher

The State should play as small a role as possible in welfare provision

Welfare was the responsibility of the individual & their family

Welfare system fostered a society of ‘dependency’ – reliance on benefit handouts
The New Right: Conservative Approach to Welfare
Concepts of Ill Health

The holistic concept

The positive concept

The negative concept
This concept refers to the belief that being healthy means to be:

Without any physical disorders or diseases
and being emotionally comfortable

Using this concept: would a person with anxiety or low self esteem be classed as healthy?

People using this concept of health would include minor discomfort such as tiredness as a symptom of ill health.
This concept refers to the belief that being healthy is only achievable through continuous effort.

This means taking active steps in terms of diet, exercise and other activities that may keep them well

Responsibility for health lies with the person, fault for any symptoms that develop also lies with the person

Using this view, would a person who does not make healthy food choices be viewed as a healthy person?
This concept refers to the belief that being healthy means the absence of illness

Good health is normal and taken for granted

Therefore, no steps are required to keep healthy

Minor discomforts such as colds, headaches, tiredness are not classed as ill health
There are three main concepts of ill health:

Ill health as illness (subjective sensation)

Ill health as having observable symptoms of disease

Ill health as a disorder
This concept refers to actually feeling ill.

The person may feel ill when they have a symptom of a disease

The person may feel ill even when there are no other symptoms present

So, ill health is defined by the person who is feeling ill.

Some people describe themselves as ill even when they feel mildly off.

Others, will refuse to think themselves as ill even when there are signs that they are.
Disease in this case refers to: diagnosable problems. These can be:

Physiological or Psychiatric (physical or mental disorders)

This view is objective, it can be evidenced by all, not just the person with the symptom
This refers to a ‘malfunction’ of a body tissue, organ or system.

This is a medical textbook definition

It is based on the idea that body systems can go wrong.
Polly feels ill. She has noticed a lump in her chest. She is later diagnosed with breast cancer.

Simon feels thirsty and tired but does not think he is ill. He tends to urinate often. He is later diagnosed with pancreatic diabetes.

Sarah feels very sad, lonely and helpless. She often cries and stays awake throughout the night. She is diagnosed with depression.

Dominic feels fine and healthy. Some months later a routine eye test reveals he has a tumour behind the eye.
Overlap of concepts of ill health:
There are 3 main concepts of health:
The holistic concept of health
The positive concept of health
The negative concept of health
‘There is nothing wrong with me, as far as I know’
‘I look after myself, stay fit, that sort of thing’
‘I feel well balanced, my body and mind are working well together’
Concepts of ill health
Ill health as an illness
Ill health as having observable symptoms of disease
Ill health as a disorder
New Right and the Family
The ‘normal’ nuclear family as the cornerstone of society.
Social changes have undermined the traditional norms and values of marriage.
John Redwood (Conservative M.P) “the natural state should be two adults taking care of their children”
The family is “Under Threat”
An end to sexual permissiveness. (Cohabitation, LPF’s and Homosexually headed families)

A return to ‘Traditional Family Values’ (I.E John Major 1992 Election)

These changes will bring an end to social problems such as delinquency, educational underachievement and child poverty.
What do they want?
Full transcript