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Cell Theory and Structure

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Patricia Unterberg

on 19 September 2016

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Transcript of Cell Theory and Structure

first person to describe cells
looked at cork cells
when he looked at thin slices of living plants, he noticed that they looked "juicy"
looked at cells from plants and fungi - didn't think animals had cells!
Surface Area to Volume Ratio
Most cells are small...why?
More surface area --> more room to exchange nutrients and wastes
Cell Theory
Developed by Theodor Schwann and added to by Rudolf Virchow
Robert Hooke
Cell Membrane
In ALL cells, prokaryote and eukaryote!
outermost layer if the cell doesn't have a cell wall
Made of proteins, lipids, and phospholipids
Protective barrier that encloses the cell
Controls the movement of materials in and out of the cell - like a doorman!
Cell Wall
outermost structure in some eukaryotes
plant cells have cell walls, animal cells do not
Rigid structure, gives support to the cell
Cell Background
Eukaryotic Cell Structures
Cell Theory and Structure
Anton van
Leewenhoek
looked at pond scum
found "little animals"
Looked at blood cells and bacteria
All organisms are made of one or more cells
The cell is the basic unit of all living things
All cells come from existing cells
Cell Types
Eukaryote
Prokaryote
has a nucleus
has membrane-bound organelles
might have a cell wall, might not
no nucleus
no membrane-bound organelles
has a cell wall
circular DNA
unicellular
can be multicellular
Cytoskeleton
web of proteins in the cytoplasm
acts like muscle and skeleton
keeps cell's membranes from collapsing and helps some cells move
Nucleus
control center
contains DNA, which has the information to make proteins
surrounded by a double membrane with pores
might contain a nucleolus, which starts making ribosomes
Ribosomes
make proteins
smallest organelle
in every cell
can float in cytoplasm or attach to membranes or the cytoskeleton
Endoplasmic
Reticulum
Where many chemical reactions take place
Where proteins, lipids, and other materials are made
Rough ER has ribsomes, where proteins are made and delivered to cell
Smooth ER makes lipids and breaks down toxic materials
Mitochondria
breaks down sugar to make energy (ATP)
powerhouse of the cell
have their own DNA
Chloroplasts
never in animal cells!
where photosynthesis happens
looks green because of chlorophyll, a pigment that traps the energy of sunlight
makes sugar, which then goes to the mitochondria to make ATP
Golgi Complex (A
pp
aratus)
P
ackages and
P
rocesses
P
roteins
Modifies lipids and proteins to do different jobs
Membranes pinch off and forms a transport bubble
Vesicles
little bubbles that move materials in and out of cell (and around it, too!)
can form from cell membrane or Golgi complex (apparatus)
Lysosomes
control cell digestion
destroy damaged or old organelles, wastes, and foreign invaders
found mainly in animal cells
Vacuoles
act like lysosomes in plants and fungi
store digestive enzymes and help cell digestion
large central vacuole in plants stores water and supports the cell
Full transcript