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Teaching 101: What Teachers Need to Know about Response to I
Transcript of Teaching 101: What Teachers Need to Know about Response to I
Remembering our students...
Teaching and Learning
Collaborative practices among school professionals are fundamental to the RTI process!
School settings offer opportunities to participate in I&RS committees, a form of RTI. Professionals (teachers, guidance counselors, members of CST, and administrators) regularly meet to discuss instructional and behavioral strategies, plan intervention techniques, and determine the need for any other related services to assist struggling learners.)
How does RTI work for the secondary school professional?
Many teachers have the conception that RTI exclusively supports students at the elementary and middle school levels.
RTI is a promising model for secondary school students.
Current methods used to identify, support and evaluate growth are ineffective.
What Educators Need to Know about Response to Intervention (RTI)
Franklin Township Public Schools
How do these vignettes demonstrate increased or decreased opportunities for teaching and learning?
Tiers of Intervention:
Problem Solving Model
Identify and define the Response to Intervention (RTI) model
Discuss approaches and benefits of RTI
Analyze partnerships and applicability of RTI to secondary school settings.
"Jacob is looking like a totally
. He's failing entirely all his classes-- ESL History, ESL Physics, Math, and ESL Language Arts. He has produced no work this year, [...] he can't even construct a sentence... this has nothing to do with his language abilities. He has never received literacy instruction, even in Tagalog. I am totally at a loss for what can be done to support Jacob.
....We need to figure out what to do with Jacob, or he will have no chance of moving forward this year, or ever in his life."
--Guidance Counselor on
Jacob (9th grade), a
newcomer ESL student
from the Philippines
"Lisa is pregnant again. She miscarried last year, and missed almost all of the second semester of school. She is very limited in English and Spanish, and is not passing even her bilingual classes. All her classes in English are remedial classes. If she fails [classes] again, she will have been retained ninth grade for the 3rd time since she moved to the United States.
We can't find Lisa a home instructor. When she returns to school, she will not likely be committed to stay. Her success at this point seems
--Guidance Counselor on
Lisa (9th grade),
an ESL student
"I am concerned about Gary. His family, concerned about the stigma, refused to have him evaluated for special education services in the past. He hates to read and write, and he simply avoids it. Even when his teachers of US History, English, and ESL provide modifications in his assignments, they receive no work from him. He is currently failing US History, which he also decides to skip regularly.
....Gary is dropping out of school this year. He says that he is
tired of failing
on Gary, an ESL student, who has attended US schools since 2008, from Dominican Republic
What is Response to Intervention (RTI)?
A model to "encourage and guide practitioners to intervene earlier on behalf of a greater number of children at risk for school failure" (Fuchs, et. al., 2005, p.57)
A means to "represent a more valid method of identifying a learning disability" than in the past (Fuchs, et. al., 2005, p.57)
What does this game teach us
Problem-solving involves thinking "outside the box!"
Game: Connect all nine dots without lifting your pen.
Tiers of Intervention
According to Fuchs, et. al. (2003):
Classroom teachers first provide effective instruction
Teachers monitor progress of students.
Students receive more or amplified support if they do not respond to a given intervention
Progress is continually monitored
Students who repeatedly do not respond to an intervention qualify for special education or for evaluation for special education services
(Fuchs, et. al. 2003, p.159)
Students receive high-quality, effective instruction in the general education classroom.
Students receive specialized intervention, remediation within general education setting if they do not respond to high-quality instruction received in Tier 1.
Evaluation for special education
Problem Solving with RTI
A system of "trial and error"
Student Name: Alexis
Alexis is a ninth-grade student at ABC High School. He is an ESL student originally from the Dominican Republic, and has lived in the US from 2009. He has attended school in NJ since his arrival but had interrupted schooling while living in DR (attended only grade school until the 3rd grade). Last year, Alexis scored 112 and 108 on the Math and LA portions of NJ ASK-8, respectively. His current marking period grades are below 65 in each of his classes, including his ESL and Bilingual support classes. He has also scored poorly on bilingual versions of diagnostic tools. Ms. Hussain, his ESL teacher, monitors his growth in academic content and language in the modality of Reading and Writing on formative and summative assessments, using WIDA (World-Class Instructional Design and Assessment) Rubrics over the course of one unit (approximately 4 weeks.) His content teachers monitor his progress on benchmark assessments in a given unit. Alexis has not yet been identified as student in need of special education services. However, he has been identified as a "student at-risk for school failure" (Fuchs, 2005, p. 57) as his teachers recognize a gap in what Alexis can do, and normalized patterns of growth and progress.
Explicit, and regular teaching of literacy and language arts-related skills
Goal-setting with the use of formalized beginning of year assessments
Progress monitoring through continuous reading and writing assessments in all content classes.
Data analysis in language and content development
What tools can we use to monitor Alexis' progress?
Fuchs, D., Mock, D., Morgan, P., & Young, C. (2003).
"Responsiveness-to-Intervention: Definitions, Evidence, and Implications for the Learning Disabilities Construct."
Learning Disabilities Research & Practice
, 18(3) p. 157-171
Hallahan, D. P., Kauffman, J. M., &
Pullen, P. C. (2012). Exceptional Learners: An Introduction to Special Education (12th Ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Fuchs, D., & Fuchs, L. (2005). "Responsiveness-to-Intervention: A
Blueprint for Practitioners, Policymakers & Parents.
Teaching Exceptional Children
. Sept/Oct. p. 57-61
• Understand key controversial issues in current special education policy and practice, specifically RTI
• Understand the current status of evidence-based research and practice standards in special education
Course & Professional Objectives
Presentation contains examples of English Language Learners (ELLS) who struggle academically beyond the challenges of English language development (ELD)
Student population requires critical thinking and problem-solving approaches that are offered by RTI.
Future research interests
RTI's potential to support ELLs who may have mild to moderate learning disabilities
Continuous Assessment & Progress Monitoring
We must see potential instead of problems!
Tiers of Intervention
Screening to identify "at-risk"
Effective Classroom Instruction
Progress Monitoring via a formalized assessment
Design a individualized, supplementary diagnostic trial for student (small-group)
Progress Monitoring for normative development
(every 8 weeks)
Comprehensive evaluation for determination of special education eligibility
Parental consent (continuous throughout Tiers)
(Fuchs, et. al., 2003, p. 160)
What problem does Alexis face?
What evidence exists that there is a problem?
What can possible solutions can address the problem?
Are the interventions for Alexis working?
What modifications can be made for Alexis?
There is no perfect answer!
instead of failure...!
(Fuchs, & Fuchs, 2005, pp. 57-58)
Yell, M. (2006).
The Law and Special
(2nd Ed.). Upper Saddle: Pearson.
For questions, comments, feedback:
(Hallahan, et. al., 2012, pg.27)