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Civil Rights Movement and the Fundamental and Political Changes on the United States
Transcript of Civil Rights Movement and the Fundamental and Political Changes on the United States
Resulted in Fundamental Political and Social
Change in the United States?
Status of Civil Rights in the
Brown v. Board of Education
De jure Segregation refers to
separation required by law
What is Civil Rights?
Jim Crow laws
De facto Segregation refers to racial separation
caused by actions of private individuals
Brown v. Board of Education (1954), was a landmark
United States Supreme Court case in which the Court
declared state laws establishing separate public schools
for black and white students unconstitutional.
Civil Rights- The rights belonging to an
individual by virtue of citizenship.
Jim Crow was the name of the racial
caste system which operated primarily,
but not exclusively in southern and border
states, between 1877 and the mid-1960s.
Jim Crow was more than a series of rigid
anti-black laws, it was a way of life.
Discrimination in the U.S. has affected African
Americans and other groups. Discrimination
based on race has its roots in racial separation,
known as segregation.
There are two kinds of segregation:
De jure segregation & De facto Segregation
What group did I just separate you into?
What kind of segregation is this?
In some parts of the country
this decision was extremely
Origins of the Modern Civil Rights
Movement for African Americans
& their goals
African Americans, leaders and ordinary men
and women alike, challenged and resisted Jim
Crow laws from the beginning.
Jim Crow system had the following beliefs or rationalizations: whites were superior to blacks in all important ways, including but not limited to intelligence, morality, and civilized behavior; sexual relations between blacks and whites would produce a mongrel race which would destroy America
The nonviolent refusal to obey laws that citizens regard as unjust or in protest of specific public policy.
Who used civil disobedience
to gain independence from
Great Britain in 1947?
Hint: He is a famous Indian leader!
Civil Rights Act of 1866
Protected the rights
of blacks to make
contracts, sue, be
a witness in
and own property.
Created the Civil Rights Section
in the U.S. Department
of Justice and gave federal
prosecutors authority to
seek court orders to prohibit
interference with the right
Major Civil Rights
Civil Rights Act of 1866
Civil Rights Act of 1957
* Also created the Civil Rights
Commission to investigate discrimination in the U.S. and recommend corrective measures.
Civil Rights Act of 1960
In response to bombings of black churches and schools in the South, the Civil Rights Act of 1960 extended the life of the Civil Rights Commission and contained penalties against those who interfered with or sought to interfere with the right to vote.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
Congress passed the Civil rights Act of 1964, using its constitutional power under Article 1 to regulate interstate commerce so that it could regulate private activities as well as state action. The act remains the most far-reaching civil rights legislation in American history, outlawing both de jure and de facto segregation and many forms of discrimination.
After petitioning local, state, and national leaders to repeal laws allowing racial segregation and discrimination, leaders organized direct actions, including sit-ins at restaurants and other public facilities, protests, marches, boycotts, and demonstrations. They were met with hostility and often violence.
What is the Voting Rights Act?
The Civil Rights Act did not address problems that minorities encountered when they tried to vote.
President Johnson announced that he would send to Congress a voting rights bill. Using its authority to enforce the provisions of the 15Th amendment, Congress quickly passed the Voting Rights Act of 1965.
The Voting Rights Act now:
Prohibits discrimination based on race
Eliminates literacy tests, poll taxes, and discriminatory practices
requires state, counties, and cities with significant numbers of voters who do not speak English to provide voting materials and assistance in appropriate languages
Requires states and counties with a history of discrimination to be monitored by the Justice Department
"In four decades since the Voting Rights Act was first passed, we've made progress toward equality, yet the work for a more perfect union is never ending. We'll continue to build on the legal equality won by the civil rights movement to help ensure that every person enjoys the opportunity that this great land of liberty offers."
*President George W. Bush, 2006
President Lyndon Johnson's special message to congress proposing this act is considered to be one of his best speeches.
" Our fathers believed that if this noble view of the right of man was to flourish, it must be rooted to democracy. The most basic right of all was the right to choose your own leaders. The history of this country, in large measure, is the history of the expansion of the right to all of our people."
How has the movement for Civil Rights changed since the mid-twentieth century?
The Civil Rights and Voting Rights Acts were major legal achievements of the civil rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s.
After passage of the laws in the 1960s organizations such as the NAACP turned their attention to other issues affecting minorities and the poor, including
Laws increasing the minimum wage
Better health care for people with HIV/AIDS
Health services for minority populations in urban and rural areas
High-quality public education for all minority children
Other groups have also been active in pursuing rights for their members and other minorities:
Farm Workers- in the early 1950s Mexican American Cesar Chavez began to register minority voters and to organize farm workers to demand better conditions in the fields of California.
Native Americans- 1968 several hundred members of Native American tribes met to discuss issues affecting their communities such as substandard housing, and 80% unemployment rate, discrimination in education and other areas, and claims of police brutality.
Women- Women worked for generations to win the right to vote, which they achieved in 1920. In the 1960s and 1970s they turned their attention to issues such as reproductive rights, equal pay for equal work, and harassment in the work place.