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Ethnic Conflict in Spain

A conflict of independence for the Basque and Catalonian people.
by

Alexander Espinal

on 21 February 2014

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Transcript of Ethnic Conflict in Spain

The Basque Country:
A Separate Entity in Spain
The Basque country is a region in
Spain that is on the western end of the Pyrenees.

The Basque people have their own culture, language and traditions. They do not identify with the people of Spain.
Tension Begins
In 1936, a coup d'état overthrew the republican government in Spain.
Basque History
Interesting Facts About the Basque People
Violence Reignites
From 1968 until now, this terrorist group has killed over 800 people and wounded thousands of others
Considered to be the oldest group in Europe, yet iroinically they are governed by one of the youngest governments.

The vast majority of Basque society actively rejects the violence of ETA, while a minority sympathizes with it.

ETA means Euzkadi Ta Azkatasuna or Basque Homeland and Freedom.


The Independence movement arose in the 19th century under Sabina de Arana y Goiri.
When he died, the Republican government granted autonomy to the people.
Works Cited
Murano, Phil. "The Basque Movement." Elkarri.org. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Feb. 2014. <http://www.elkarri.org/en/textos/quienes
"THE BASQUE SEPARATIST MOVEMENT." unc.edu. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Feb. 2014. <http://www.unc.edu/~sdteeter/basque.ht
Duchitanga, Anita. "Basque Conflicto." euroknews.com. N.p., 13 Mar. 2013. Web. 16 Feb. 2014. <http://www.euskonews.com/0256zbk/gaia25604_01
Woodworth, Paddy. "More Basque Violence." The New York Times. The New York Times, 3 Aug. 2009. Web. 14 Feb. 2014. <http://www.nytimes.com/2009/08/04/opinio
"Basque Violence." BBC News. BBC, 12 Feb. 1999. Web. 18 Feb. 2014. <http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/programmes/fr
"History of the Basque People." History of the Basque People. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Feb. 2014. <http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/cienci
United Nations Report April 13 2008, "Violence in the Basque Country."
"Franco and the Spanish Transition to Democracy" Page Rotunda, page 345 April 5 2004
Botwin, Sylas "Basque Conflict: Why Do They Kill?." JSTOR. N.p., 12 Feb. 2010. Web. 12 Feb. 2014. <http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/40209726?uid=2&uid=4&sid=21103532793443>.


Franco suppressed Basque culture after the Spanish Civil war.
Basque intellectuals were imprisoned and tortured.
Franco also revoked Basque autonomy, an act that angered the Basque people.
The ETA was formed in 1959 by a group of students determined to make Spain recognize the Basque country as its own sovereign state.

They initially preached for peaceful protest, but the armed resistance began only a year after formation.

Dissatisfaction with the New Democracy
When Franco dies, Spain begins its transition to democracy. The Basque
people are promised more independence.
Yet they are still unhappy being designated an "autonomous region." They want full independence.
The ETA disbanded in the 1980s after the Spanish government created GAL, a military group that targeted ETA sympathizers.
In the 2000s they came back with much more violent tactics. They are officially considered a terrorist group.
They resort to violence
Consequences of the Conflict
Issues with France
There is a large community of Basque
people living in southern France.
Many ETA terrorists escape to France,
but the French government does not want
to get officially involved.
On a local scale, the conflict
with the ETA has resulted in
a transformation of the cultural landscape.
In the Basque Country, ETA propaganda can be seen everywhere, while the destruction of Spanish cultural landmarks persists.
Regionally, random acts of violence across northern Spain and southern France are common.
The basque people speak Euskara
They are faithful Roman Catholic
5th Largest regional economy in spain
Full transcript