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common

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Transcript of common

Lesson Planning 98 9/12/2012 Karin K. Hess, Ed.D., Senior Associate National Center for Assessment, Dove, NH khess@nciea.org Gather, analyze, organize, and interpret information from multiple (print and non print) sources to draft a reasoned report

Analyzing author’s craft (e.g., style, bias, literary techniques, point of view)

Create an exercise plan applying the “FITT (Frequency, Intensity, Time, Type) Principle” Extended Thinking: DOK 4 Examples Requires high cognitive demand and is very complex

Students are expected to make connections, relate ideas within the content or among content areas, and select or devise one approach among many alternatives on how the situation can be solved

Due to the complexity of cognitive demand, DOK 4 often requires an extended period of time
Extended Thinking: Level 4 Develop a scientific model for a complex idea
Propose and evaluate solutions for an economic problem
Explain, generalize or connect ideas, using supporting evidence from a text or source
Create a dance that represents the characteristics of a culture DOK Level 3 Examples Requires deep understanding exhibited through planning, using evidence, and more demanding cognitive reasoning

The cognitive demands are complex and abstract

An assessment item that has more than one possible answer and requires students to justify the response would most likely be a Level 3 Strategic Thinking: Level 3 Includes the engagement of some mental processing beyond recalling or reproducing a response

Items require students to make some decisions as to how to approach the question or problem

Actions imply more than one mental or cognitive process/step Skills/Concepts: DOK Level 2 DOK Level 1:
Recall and Reproduction Requires recall of information, such as a fact, definition, term, or performance of a simple process or procedure
Answering a Level 1 item can involve following a simple, well-known procedure or formula Goal For Depth of Knowledge



Teachers need to develop the ability to design instruction, and create units of study/curriculum and classroom assessments for a greater range of cognitive demand. Depth of Knowledge 84 Samples of Student Writing Writing samples:
Annotated to illustrate the criteria required to meet the standards
Samples include the following types of writing at all grade levels:
Argument (“opinion” writing in K-4)
Informative/explanatory
Narrative
Demonstrate the lowest level of quality required to meet the Writing standards for that grade level 83 Samples of Student Writing Appendix C Appendix B has been divided to meet the grade band specific audience needs, (K-5, 6-8, and 9-12).
A complete downloadable version is available.
http://www.ade.az.gov/standards/CommonCoreStandards/default.asp 80 Appendix B: Organization Selecting Text Exemplars
Exemplars are useful guideposts.
Complexity
Quality
Range Background- Appendix B:
Text Exemplars and Sample Performance Tasks 77 74 Listening and Reading Comprehension by Age 70
Reader and Task Support Students reading well above and well below grade-band levels need additional support.

Many students on course for college and career readiness are likely to need scaffolding as they master higher levels of text complexity. 68 Williamson, G. L. (2008). A Text Readability Continuum for Postsecondary Readiness. Journal of Advanced Academics, 19(4), 602-632. How well do you have to read for college and careers? 60 Appendix A: the Big Picture “Rigor is creating an environment in which each student is expected to learn at high levels, each student is supported
so he or she can learn at high levels, and each student demonstrates learning at high levels.”


“Rigor can be maintained while increasing student participation.”
Gaston Caperton Rigor is…. Same rules, higher level game. Students use the same basic skills but in a more sophisticated way. Sophistication of Knowledge Clear expectations
Targets of performance
Focus on evidence of learning
Progress-monitoring
Student achievement relative to the standards
Alignment of assessment and instruction with the standards
Assessment/teacher reflection informs instruction Why Create a Design With the End in Mind? What do I want my students to know and be able to do?

How will I know if my students have achieved the desired result?

Where are my students now, what do they need, and in what order do they need it in order to be successful? Planning with the End in Mind Crosswalk from 2010 to 2008
Summary of Changes
Removed
Moved to a different grade level
Moved from another grade level to this one (New term: Redistributed)
New to the standards How has your grade level changed? Cluster Domain Grade 7
Grade 7 Overview
(K – 12)

CgD – Cognitive Domain
G – Geometry

(K-5)

OA – Operations and Algebraic Thinking
NBT – Numbers and Operations Base Ten
NF – Numbers and Operations Fractions
MD – Measurement and Data

(6-12)

A - Algebra
RP – Ratios and Proportional Relationships
NS – Number System
EE – Expressions and Equations
SP – Statistics and Probability
F – Functions
N – Number Math Domains Architecture (Structure)

Coding Features of the 2010 Mathematics Standards A Triple Track Agenda Enduring Understandings are similar to “take aways”
These understandings are what we want students to take with them throughout life as a literate individual.
Each standard has something within it that students need to understand in order to be successful at meeting the standard Enduring Understandings Reading
RL = Reading Standards for Literature
RI = Reading Standards for Informational Text
RF = Reading Standards for Foundational Skills (K-5)
RH = Reading Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies (6-12)
RST = Reading Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects (6-12)
Writing
W = Writing Standards
WHST = Writing Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies,
Science, and Technical Subjects (6-12)
Speaking and Listening
SL = Speaking and Listening Standards
Language
L = Language Standards

STANDARDS’ “FORMULA” = strand, grade, standard English Language Arts Shift 5
Writing from Sources (K - 12)
Writing emphasizes the use of evidence to inform or make an argument.

Students develop skills through written arguments that respond to the ideas, events, facts, and arguments presented in the texts they read. Instructional Shifts to Support Students in Literacy Acquisition Shift 4
Text-Based Answers(K-12) Students have rich and rigorous conversations dependent on a common text.

Teachers insist classroom experiences stay deeply connected to the text on the page.

Students develop habits for making evidentiary arguments both in conversation and writing to assess comprehension. Instructional Shifts to Support Students in Literacy Acquisition Shift 3
Staircase of Text Complexity(K-12) Students read the central, grade ~appropriate text around which instruction is centered.

Teachers create more time and space in the curriculum for close, careful reading of text.

Teachers provide necessary scaffolding.

TEXT COMPLEXITY MATTERS! Instructional Shifts to Support Students in Literacy Acquisition Shift 2
Building Knowledge in the Disciplines (6-12) Content area teachers emphasize literacy experiences in their planning and instruction.

Students learn through content ~specific texts in science, social studies, and technical subject classrooms.

Students are expected to learn from what they read. Instructional Shifts to Support Students in Literacy Acquisition Shift 1
Balancing Informational and Literacy Texts (K-5) Balance of informational and literacy texts.

Students access science, social studies, the arts, and literature through text.

At least 50% of what students read is informational. Instructional Shifts to Support Students in Literacy Acquisition CCR taught by multiple teachers. CCR mostly taught by one teacher. Who is Responsible? Demonstrate independence and the ability to work collaboratively.
Possess strong content knowledge.
Respond to the varying demands of audience, task, and purpose.
Comprehend as well as critique.
Use evidence effectively to support ideas.
Evaluate sources for credibility.
Identify and understand bias.
Utilize technology and digital media strategically and capably.
Understand other perspectives and cultures. Characteristics of College /Career Ready Students
Focus on results rather than means.

Integrated model of literacy.

Research and media skills blended into the Standards.

Shared responsibility for students’ literacy development.

Focus & coherence in instruction and assessment. KEY DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS College & Career Readiness (CCR) Standards
Overarching standards for each strand that are further defined by grade-specific standards.
Grade-Level Standards in English Language Arts
K-8, grade-by-grade
9-10 and 11-12 grade bands for high school
Four strands: Reading, Writing, Speaking & Listening, and Language
Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects
Standards are embedded at grades K-5
Content-specific literacy standards are provided for grades 6-8, 9-10, and 11-12 KEY DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS 14 9/12/2012 Karin K. Hess, Ed.D., Senior Associate National Center for Assessment, Dove, NH khess@nciea.org Depth of Knowledge Goal

Understand the relationship between Bloom’s Taxonomy, Webb’s Depth of Knowledge, and the Hess Cognitive Rigor Matrix. Depth of Knowledge Standards for reading and writing in history/social studies, science, and technical subjects

Complement rather than replace content standards in those subjects

Responsibility of teachers in those subjects

Alignment with college and career readiness expectations Key Advances Key Advances Evidence was used to guide critical decisions in the following areas:
Inclusion of particular content.
Timing of when content should be introduced and the progression of that content.
Ensuring focus and coherence.
Organizing and formatting the standards.
Determining emphasis on particular topics in standards.
Evidence includes:
Standards from high-performing countries, leading states and nationally-regarded frameworks.
Research on adolescent literacy, text complexity, mathematics instruction, quantitative literacy.
Lists of works consulted and research base included in standards’ appendices. Common Core State Standards Evidence Base
Preparation: The standards are college-and career-ready. They will help prepare students with the knowledge and skills they need to succeed in education and training after high school for an ever shrinking world.
Competition: The standards are internationally benchmarked. Common standards will help ensure our students are globally competitive.
Equity : Expectations are consistent for all and not dependent on a student’s zip code.
Clarity: The standards are focused, coherent, and clear. Clearer standards help students (and parents and teachers) understand what is expected of them.
Collaboration: The standards create a foundation to work collaboratively across states and districts, pooling resources and expertise, to create curricular tools professional development, common assessments and other materials. Why Common Core State Standards

Why Common Core Standards?
What are the Instructional Shifts called for in the Common Core Standards?
What are characteristics of students who are college and/or career ready?
How do I interpret the Common Core Standards and understand the coding?
Why is the design of the document important? Essential Questions Standards that have been adopted by 48 states in the U.S.
Common
Core “When we long for life without difficulties, remind us that oaks grow strong in contrary winds and diamonds are made under pressure.”
Peter Marshall “Rigor is creating an environment in which each student is expected to learn at high levels, each student is supported so he or she can learn at high levels, and each student demonstrates learning at high levels.” Compare consumer actions and analyze how these actions impact the environment

Analyze or evaluate the effectiveness of literary elements (e.g., characterization, setting, point of view, conflict and resolution, plot structures)

Solve a multiple-step problem and provide support with a mathematical explanation that justifies the answer DOK Level 3: Strategic Thinking

Examples: Compare desert and tropical environments
Identify and summarize the major events, problems, solutions, conflicts in literary text
Explain the cause-effect of historical events
Predict a logical outcome based on information in a reading selection
Explain how good work habits are important at home, school, and on the job
Classify plane and three dimensional figures
Describe various styles of music Skills/Concepts: DOK 2 Examples List animals that survive by eating other animals
Locate or recall facts found in text
Describe physical features of places
Determine the perimeter or area of rectangles given a drawing or labels
Identify elements of music using music terminology
Identify basic rules for participating in simple games and activities Recall and Reproduction DOK Level 1

Examples: 85
K.W.1 Use a combination of drawing, dictating, and writing to compose opinion pieces in which they tell a reader the topic or the name of the book they are writing about and states an opinion or preference about the topic or book.

Find the Student Sample: K, Argument (Opinion) in your Handout Section.

Annotations refer back to the standards
The writer of this piece
Tells the reader the name of the book (in the title of the paper).
My fabit (favorite) Book is do you Want to be my FRIEND
States an opinion or preference about the book.
. . . My fait (favorite) pot (part) is the hos (horse) Writing Samples: Kindergarten
Students (with prompting and support from the teacher) describe the relationship between key events of the overall story of Little Bear by Else Holmelund Minarik to the corresponding scenes illustrated by Maurice Sendak. [RL.K.7]

Students describe how the narrator’s point of view in Walter Farley’s The Black Stallion influences how events are described and how the reader perceives the character of Alexander Ramsay, Jr. [RL.5.6]

Students summarize the development of the morality of Tom Sawyer in Mark Twain’s novel of the same name and analyze its connection to themes of accountability and authenticity by noting how it is conveyed through characters, setting, and plot. [RL.8.2]

Students analyze how Michael Shaara in his Civil War novel The Killer Angels creates a sense of tension and even surprise regarding the outcome of events at the Battle of Gettysburg through pacing, ordering of events, and the overarching structure of the novel. [RL.9–10.5] Sample Performance Tasks 79 Text exemplars are supplemented by brief performance tasks.

Tasks illustrate specifically the application of the Standards to texts of sufficient complexity, quality, and range. Sample Performance Tasks 78 75 Acquisition of general academic and content-specific vocabulary
Knowledge of Language
Conventions

Progressive Skill Development
Skills should be mastered in the year they are introduced.
(example)
K-3 Simple, Past Present and Future verb Tenses,
4-5 Progressive and Perfect Tenses
8th Active and Passive Voice Language 73 Emphasis on argument and informative/explanatory writing
Writing about sources
Students are required to adapt their writing to a variety of contexts and communicative tasks Writing 72


What is text complexity and what are its components? A teacher, new to your campus,
keeps hearing this term
“text complexity.” She asks you to
explain the meaning and its
relevance to her as a classroom teacher.

What might you tell her?

Think About It
2. Share 71 Scaffolding It is important to recognize that scaffolding often is entirely appropriate.
The expectation that scaffolding will occur with particularly challenging texts is built into the Standards’ grade-by-grade text complexity expectations.
The general movement, however, should be toward decreasing scaffolding and increasing independence both within and across the text complexity bands defined in the Standards. 69 Reader & Task Considerations
These decisions are best made by teachers who employ their professional judgment, experience, and knowledge of their students and the subject.

Variables specific to reader’s
Motivation
Knowledge
Experiences 67 Quantitative Dimensions of Text Complexity Quantitative Dimensions refer to:

word length
word frequency
sentence length
text cohesion

These are difficult, if not impossible, for a human reader to evaluate efficiently, especially in long texts. Today they are typically measured by computer software. 66 Materials:
Appendix A, page 6
Figure 2: Qualitative Dimensions of Text Complexity

Turn to page six in Appendix A.
Read the list of Qualitative Dimensions.
Talk about one or two of the dimensions with your partner.
How could the dimensions affect classroom instruction?

How do the Qualitative Dimensions help teachers address rigor and higher order thinking skills? 65 Qualitative Dimensions of Text Complexity
Knowledge Demands: Life Experiences (literary texts)
Simple theme → Complex or sophisticated themes

Knowledge Demands: Cultural/Literary Knowledge (chiefly literary texts)
Everyday knowledge and familiarity with genre conventions
required → Cultural and literary knowledge useful

Knowledge Demands: Content/Discipline Knowledge
information texts (chiefly informational texts)

Everyday knowledge and familiarity with genre conventions
required → Extensive, perhaps specialized discipline-specific
content knowledge required Levels of Meaning (literary texts) or Purpose (informational texts)
Explicitly stated purpose → Implicit purpose,
may be hidden or obscure
Structure
Explicit → Implicit
Language Conventionality and Clarity
Literal → Figurative or ironic 64 Qualitative Dimensions of Text Complexity
Qualitative dimensions of text complexity are best
measured or only measurable by an attentive human
reader.
Dimensions include
meaning or purpose
structure
language conventionality
clarity
knowledge demands
Text Complexity 63
What does the research tell us?
Respond to the Question:
What is the need for increased text complexity?

Materials
Appendix A pp 2-5
Jigsaw
Assign a section to each member at your table to read and share your responses.
Share findings with entire group. 61
What is text complexity and why does text complexity need to increase? 59
Appendices
Appendix A:
Articulates the research that supports the need for increased text complexity K-12.

Appendix B:
Applies understanding of text complexity to identify grade level text samples and corresponding performance tasks.

Appendix C:
Identifies exemplars of student writing. Number System Standard 1 Grade 7 Coding for Mathematics Standards
7.NS.1 Critical Ideas Grades K-8 Domain Cluster Cluster Cluster Standard Standard Standard Standard Standard Standard Standard Standard Standard Standard Standard Standard Essential questions are the guiding questions of the unit/teaching of the standard.

The questions should guide instruction and students should be able to answer the questions at the end of the learning process.

The questions work to solidify the enduring understanding for the students. Essential Questions Shift 6
Academic Vocabulary (K-12) Students build needed vocabulary to access grade-level, complex texts.

Focus strategically on the comprehension of words such as discourse, generation, and theory, and less time on literary terms (onomatopoeia).

Teachers insist students use academic words in speaking and writing. Instructional Shifts to Support Students in Literacy Acquisition CCR Writing Standard 7: Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects based on focused questions, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation. Writing: Research to Build/Present Knowledge

Grade 5: Conduct short research projects that use several sources to build knowledge through investigation of different aspects of a topic.

Grades 8: Conduct short research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question), drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions that allow for multiple avenues of exploration.

Grades 11-12: Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation. Writing: Research to Build/Present Knowledge

K: Participate in shared research and writing projects (e.g., explore a number of books by a favorite author and express opinions about them.)

Grade 6: Conduct short research projects to answer a question, drawing on several sources and refocusing the inquiry when appropriate.


Grades 9-10: Conduct short as well as more-sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject; demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation. Example of Grade-Level Progression
in Writing CCR Reading Standard 3: Analyze how and why individuals, events, and ideas develop and interact over the course of a text. Reading Standards for Informational Text

K: With prompting and support, describe the connection between two individuals, events, ideas, or pieces of information in a text.

Grade 3: Describe the relationships between a series of historical events, scientific ideas or concepts, or steps in technical procedures in a text, using language that pertains to time, sequence, and cause/effect.

Grade 6: Analyze in detail how a key individual, event, or idea is introduced, illustrated, and elaborated in a text (e.g., through examples or anecdotes.) Reading Standards for Literature

K: With prompting and support, identify characters, setting, and major events in a story.


Grade 3: Describe characters in a story (e.g., their traits, motivations, or feelings) and explain how their actions contribute to the sequence of events.


Grade 6: Describe how a particular story’s or drama’s plot unfold in a series of episodes as well as how the characters respond or change as the plot moves towards a resolution. Grade-Level
Progression in Reading Currently, every state has its own set of academic standards, meaning public education students in each state are learning to different levels.

All students must be prepared to compete with not only their American peers in the next state, but with students from around the world. Why is This Important? Only adopted ELA 5 www.corestandards.org
Beginning in the spring of 2009 Governors and state commissioners of education from 48 states, two territories, and the District of Columbia, committed to developing a common core of state K-12 English Language Arts (ELA) and Mathematics standards.
The Common Core State Standards Initiative (CCSSI) is a state-led effort coordinated by the National Governors Association (NGA) and the Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO). The Common Core Standards Initiative 86
7.W.1 Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence. a. Introduce claim(s), acknowledge alternate or opposing claims, and organize the reasons and evidence logically. b. Support claim(s) with logical reasoning and relevant evidence, using accurate, credible sources and demonstrating an understanding of the topic or text. c. Use words, phrases, and clauses to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among claim(s), reasons, and evidence. d. Establish and maintain a formal style. e. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.
Find the Student Sample: 7, Argument in your Handout Section

*Annotations refer back to the standards*
The writer of this piece
Introduces a claim (stated late in the essay).
…I disagree with the idea to put cameras in classrooms. This plan should not be put to action.
Acknowledges alternate or opposing claims.
Instead of solving problems, cameras would cause the problems. Writing Samples: 7th grade 82
Touring the Titles
Does my reading program have the appropriate level of text complexity?

How would I know?

What are examples of appropriate text complexity for specific grade levels?

Materials:
Appendix A: Pages 4-16
Appendix B: Table of Contents
Highlighters
At your tables, highlight titles currently being used in your grade level.
Using a different colored highlighter, identify titles that have been moved from your level to another grade. What “AHAS” and “UH-OHS” did you observe? 76
Text Exemplars and Sample Performance Tasks Appendix B Reader and Task – background knowledge of reader, motivation, interests, and complexity generated by tasks assigned 2. Quantitative measures – readability and other scores of text complexity Qualitative measures – levels of meaning, structure, language conventionality and clarity, and knowledge demands
Reading Standards include exemplar texts (stories and literature, poetry, and informational texts) that illustrate appropriate level of complexity by grade.

Text complexity is defined by: Overview of Text Complexity 62 Reader and Task Quantitative Qualitative Stage 3
Plan Learning Experiences and Instruction

(to support student success on assessments,
leading to desired results) Stage 2
Determine Acceptable Evidence
(Design Balanced Assessments)

(To assess student progress toward desired results) Stage 1
Identify Desired Results

Enduring Understandings  Big Ideas 
Essential Questions 

Skills and Knowledge Arizona
Standards Understanding By Design (UBD) Number & Operations- Fractions Number and Operations- Base Ten Operations and Algebraic Thinking Expressions & Equations The Number System Algebra K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 High School Flow Between Domains Standard Domain Grade Level Standard Grade Level Domain



EE.1.3

1.EE.3 Coding Standard Strand Grade Level Standard Grade Level



RL.1.3

1.RL.3 Coding Strand CCR S & L Standard 6: Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and communicative tasks, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate. S & L: Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas

Grade 3: Speak in complex sentences when appropriate to task and situation in order to provide requested detail or clarification. (See Grade 3 Language Standards 1 & 3 for specific expectations)

Grades 8: Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate. (See Grade 8 Language Standards 1 & 3 for specific expectations)


Grades 11-12: Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate. (See Grade 11-12 Language Standards 1 & 3 for specific expectations) S & L: Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas

K: Speak audibly and express thoughts, feelings, and ideas clearly.



Grade 6: Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate. (See Grade 6 Language Standards 1 & 3 for specific expectations)

Grades 9-10: Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate. (See Grades 9-10 Language Standards 1 & 3 for specific expectations) Example of Grade-Level Progression for
Speaking and Listening CCR Reading Standard 3: Analyze how and why individuals, events, and ideas develop and interact over the course of a text. Reading Standards for Informational Text

Grade 8: Analyze how a text makes connections among and distinctions between individuals, ideas, or events (e.g., through comparisons, analogies, or categories.)

Grades 9-10: Analyze how the author unfolds an analysis or series of ideas or events, including the order in which the points are made, how they are introduced and developed, and the connections that are drawn between them.

Grades 11-12: Analyze a complex set of ideas or sequence of events and explain how specific individuals, ideas or events interact and develop over the course of the text. Reading Standards for Literature

Grade 8: Analyze how particular lines of dialogue or incidents in a story or drams propel the action, reveal aspects of a character, or provoke a decision.

Grades 9-10: Analyze how complex characters (e.g., those with multiple or conflicting motivations) develop over the course of a text, interact with other characters, and advance the plot or develop the theme.

Grades 11-12: Evaluate various explanations for characters’ actions or for events and determine which explanation best accords with textual evidence, acknowledging where the text leaves matters uncertsain. Grade-Level
Progression in Reading High School Standard Cluster Standard Standard Standard Standard Standard Standard Standard Cluster Standard Cluster Standard Standard Standard Standard Standard Cluster Standard Standard Standard Standard Standard Standard Cluster Standard Standard Standard Standard Cluster Domain Domain Conceptual Category Cluster Strand Cluster Standards Ask and answer questions about unknown words in a text.
Recognize common types of texts (e.g., storybooks, poems).
With prompting and support, name the author and illustrator of a story and define the role of each in telling a story. Craft and Structure Key Ideas and Details Kindergarten: RL
1. With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about key details in a text.
2. With prompting and support, retell familiar stories, including key details.
With prompting and support, identify characters, settings, and major events in a story. Reading Standards for Literature LABELS OF THE ELA STANDARDS Acquire Solve non-
routine/ make
connections Conjecture,
Generalize
Prove Demonstrate
Understanding Perform
Procedures Memorize Extend Use Extended
Thinking Strategic
Thinking Recall Skill/Concept Cognitive Demand (Expectations for Student Performance) 13 Karin K. Hess, Ed.D., Senior Associate
National Center for Assessment, Dove, NH
khess@nciea.org

Why Common Core Standards?
What are the Instructional Shifts called for in the Common Core Standards?
What are characteristics of students who are college and/or career ready?
How do I interpret the Common Core Standards and understand the coding?
Why is the design of the document important? Grade 7
In Grade 7, instructional time should focus on four critical areas: (1) developing understanding of and applying proportional relationships; (2) developing understanding of operations with rational numbers and working with expressions and linear equations; (3) solving problems involving scale drawings and informal geometric constructions, and working with two- and three-dimensional shapes to solve problems involving area, surface area, and volume; and (4) drawing inferences about populations based on samples.


Students extend their understanding of ratios and develop understanding of proportionality to solve single- and multi-step problems. Students use their understanding of ratios and proportionality to solve a wide variety of percent problems, including those involving discounts, interest, taxes, tips, and percent increase or decrease. Students solve problems about scale drawings by relating corresponding lengths between the objects or by using the fact that relationships of lengths within an object are preserved in similar objects. Students graph proportional relationships and understand the unit rate informally as a measure of the steepness of the related line, called the slope. They distinguish proportional relationships from other relationships.


(2) Students develop a unified understanding of number, recognizing fractions, decimals (that have a finite or a repeating decimal representation), and percents as different representations of rational numbers. Students extend addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division to all rational numbers, maintaining the properties of operations and the relationships between addition and subtraction, and multiplication and division. By applying these properties, and by viewing negative numbers in terms of everyday contexts (e.g., amounts owed or temperatures below zero), students explain and interpret the rules for adding, subtracting, multiplying, and dividing with negative numbers. They use the arithmetic of rational numbers as they formulate expressions and equations in one variable and use these equations to solve problems.


(3) Students continue their work with area from Grade 6, solving problems involving the area and circumference of a circle and surface area of three-dimensional objects. In preparation for work on congruence and similarity in Grade 8 they reason about relationships among two-dimensional figures using scale drawings and informal geometric constructions, and they gain familiarity with the relationships between angles formed by intersecting lines. Students work with three-dimensional figures, relating them to two-dimensional figures by examining cross-sections. They solve real-world and mathematical problems involving area, surface area, and volume of two- and three-dimensional objects composed of triangles, quadrilaterals, polygons, cubes and right prisms.
(4) Students build on their previous work with single data distributions to compare two data distributions and address questions about differences between populations. They begin informal work with random sampling to generate data sets and learn about the importance of representative samples for drawing inferences. The End...or just the beginning!
Reading
Balance of literature and informational text
Text complexity
Writing
Emphasis on argument and informative/explanatory writing
Writing about sources
Speaking and Listening
Inclusion of formal and informal talk
Language
Stress on general academic and subject specific vocabulary
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