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. Phoneme. Series of phoneme.
Transcript of . Phoneme. Series of phoneme.
The definitions of the phoneme vary greatly.
the phoneme may be viewed as a functional, material and abstract unit.
The articulatory features which do not serve to distinguish meaning are called non-distinctive, irrelevant or redundant; for instance, it is impossible in English to oppose an aspirated [p] to a non-aspirated one in the same phonetic context to distinguish meanings. That is why aspiration is a non-distinctive feature of English consonants.
The phoneme is a smallest unit capable of distinguishing one word from another word, one grammatical form of word from another.
phoneme is a class of phonemically similar sounds contrasting and mutually exclusive with all similar classes in the language.
phoneme is a minimal sound by which meaning may be discriminated
Three aspects of the phonemes:
1. the phoneme is a
unit. Function is usually understood to mean discriminatory function, that is, the role of the various components of the phonetic system of the language in distinguishing one morpheme from another, one word from another or also one utterance from another.
The opposition of phonemes in the same phonetic environment differentiates the meaning of morphemes and words, e.g. said— says, sleeper — sleepy, bath — path, light — like.
allophones of the same phoneme, no matter how different their articulation may be, function as the same linguistic unit. Phonemes differentiate words like tie and die from each other, and to be able to hear and produce phonemic differences is part of what it means to be a competent speaker of the language.
2. the phoneme is
material, real and objective
. That means that it is realized in speech in the form of speech sounds, its allophones. The sets of speech sounds, that is the allophones belonging to the same phoneme are not identical in their articulatory content though there remains some phonetic similarity between them.
On the one hand
, the phoneme is objective real, because it is realized in speech in the material form of speech sounds, its allophones
On the other hand
, it is an abstract language unit. That is why we can look upon the phoneme as a dialectical unity of the material and abstract aspects.
Basic functions of the phoneme are:
Constitutive – phoneme constitutes words, word combinations etc.
Distinctive – phoneme helps to distinguish the meanings of words, morphemes
Recognitive – phoneme makes up grammatical forms of words, sentences, so the right use of allophones