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Transcript of Film
A Serbian Film
A Serbian Film (Serbian: Српски филм / Srpski film) is a 2010 Serbian horror film and Srdjan Spasojevic's first feature film. Spasojevic directed, co-wrote and produced the film. It tells the story of a down-on-his-luck porn star who agrees to participate in an "art film", only to discover that he has been drafted into a snuff film with child rape and necrophilic themes. The film stars Serbian actors Srđan Todorović and Sergej Trifunović.
Upon its debut on the art film circuit, the film received substantial attention for its graphic depictions of rape, necrophilia, and child sexual abuse. The Serbian state investigated the film for crime against sexual morals and crime related to the protection of minors. The film has been banned in Spain, Australia, New Zealand, Malaysia, and Singapore, rejected in Norway, and temporarily banned from screening in Brazil where a decision to repeal the film has not been made yet.
Review and Ratings
Sick, sick, sick!
Author: Nikol from Belgrade, Serbia
7 September 2010
*** This review may contain spoilers ***
This film is sick on so many levels, it's absolutely beyond my comprehension. Though director is known for his appreciation of unconventional film making, I could never imagine that anyone with good mental health would ever direct, produce and star in such a film. The amount of sodomy, violence and deviance is unbelievable. Having sex with a woman while beating her and chopping her head off while still doing it; delivering a newborn baby and immediately forcing it to oral or any kind of sex (yes I do realize it was not an actual baby, but still); not to mention the scene including the "actor", his brother, his wife and his own son ... I don't get offended by lots of things I see or hear, but it's not enough to say that I am absolutely disgusted with this one. Simply shocked. Speechless.
I personally thought A Serbian Film was very disturbing and traumatising as it contained strong images such as rape scenes and cannibalism. This is the most terrifying movie I’ve ever seen as it reached that extent to almost making me vomit. The reason for A Serbian Film being so terrifying is because of the violent actions which took place such as the scene where the retired pornstar ,who is also a father, rapes his own wife and son.
Although the plot was out of proportion, the filming itself was very extraordinary making the film very convincing and gruesome.
Extreme Close Up
A photograph or a film or television shot in which the subject is tightly framed and shown at a relatively large scale.
A dolly is a cart which travels along tracks. The camera is mounted on the dolly and records the shot as it moves. Dolly shots have a number of applications and can provide very dramatic footage.
Angular deviation from a vertical or horizontal plane or surface; an inclination or slope.
a moving shot, often breathtaking; an establishing shot from a bird's eye view or from overhead, usually taken from a helicopter - due to its maneuverability, the shot may pan, arc, or sweep through a landscape; many films open with a helicopter shot (often under the credits)
a shot taken with the camera placed in a position below and pointing upward at the subject.
Low Angle Shot
In film, a high angle shot is usually when the camera angle is located above the eyeline. With this type of angle, the camera looks down on the subject and the point of focus often get "swallowed up" by the setting. High angle shots also make the figure or object seem vulnerable or powerless.
High Angle Shot
In film, a medium shot is a camera angle shot from a medium distance. The dividing line between "long shot" and "medium shot" is fuzzy, as is the line between "medium shot" and "close-up".
A video or film recording made with the camera positioned to observe the most action in the performance.
An establishing shot in filmmaking and television production sets up, or establishes the context for a scene by showing the relationship between its important figures and objects. It is generally a long- or extreme-long shot at the beginning of a scene indicating where, and sometimes when, the remainder of the scene takes place
Typically shows the entire object or human figure and is usually intended to place it in some relation to its surroundings.
A Two shot is a type of shot employed in the film industry in which the frame encompasses a view of two people (the subjects). The subjects do not have to be next to each other, and there are many common two-shots which have one subject in the foreground and the other subject in the background. It is very useful if the film is about two people.
In film or video, an over the shoulder shot (also over shoulder, OS, OTS, or third-person shot) is a shot of someone or something taken from the perspective or camera angle from the shoulder of another person.
Over The Shoulder
Close-ups are one of the standard shots used regularly with medium shots and long shots (cinematic techniques). Close-ups display the most detail, but they do not include the broader scene. Moving in to a close-up or away from a close-up is a common type of zooming.
A shot using a lens whose focal length is adjusted during the shot. Zooms are sometimes used in place of tracking shots, but the differences between the two are significant. A zoom normally ends in a close-up, a zoom-back in a general shot. Both types of shot imply a rapid movement in time and space, and as such create the illusion of displacement in time and space. A zoom-in picks out and isolates a person or object, a zoom-out places that person or object in a wider context. A zoom shot can be seen, therefore, as voyeurism at its most desirably perfect.
Filmmaking and professional video cameras pan by turning horizontally on a vertical axis, but the effect may be enhanced by adding other techniques, such as rails to move the whole camera platform. Slow panning is also combined with zooming in or out on a single subject, leaving the subject in the same portion of the frame, to emphasize or de-emphasize the subject respectively
Tracking shot is any shot in which the camera follows a subject within the frame, such as a moving actor or a moving vehicle. When using the term tracking shot in this sense, the camera may be moved in ways not involving a camera dolly, such as via a Steadicam, via handheld camera operator, or by being panned on a tripod.
In filmmaking and video production, a crane shot is a shot taken by a camera on a crane or jib. The most obvious uses are to view the actors from above or to move up and away from them, a common way of ending a movie. Camera cranes go back to the dawn of movie-making, and were frequently used in silent films to enhance the epic nature of large sets and massive crowds.
Tilt Shot - A shot taken by angling a stationary camera up (tilt-up) or down (tilt-down).
What if I were living the poor life?
What if I were a depressed pornstar?
What if life was just a dream?
What if I were to try the hardest drug ever?
What if there was an after life?
The first most present detail in A Serbian Film is the cinematography. The composition of shots have a good healthy balance between deep focus and varying shallow depths of field, which keeps the eye stimulated, even if it doesn’t want to be. There are specific horrific scenes in this movies that, due to the angles and types of shots used make the scene not only quite effective, but also it is made far too effective. For example, in one scene toward the third act of the film, the main character Milos (played by Srdjan Todorovic) gets excessively drugged with bull Viagra by the antagonist in the film, an eccentric snuff filmmaker Vukmir (played by Sergej Trifunovic).
It isn’t due to the gore or even the excessive, brutal rape, but the harrowing and horrible emotional destruction that the survivors at the end of the film go through leaves the worst possible feeling lingering in your chest when the conclusion occurs. It then delivers a clear concise message that in the end, everyone becomes a victim, even the villains. All of the characters become victims of this scenario and of their environments. I suppose this revelation is supposed to tie in Spasojevic and Radivojevic’s idea of sociopolitical commentary on Serbian people. This achieves two emotional states in its finalization, anger and agitation.
"About Cherry" has helped me develop on the idea of "what if I were a pron star living on depression" as the story line within the film is similar to what I had in mind.
Cherry is about Angelina (Ashley Hinshaw), an 18-year-old girl on the verge of finishing high school. Angelina's family life is difficult. Her mother (Lili Taylor) is an alcoholic and her step-father is violent and unpredictable. One morning her boyfriend (Jonny Weston) suggests she take naked pictures for money. She balks at first but then does the photo shoot, using the money to run-off with her best friend (Dev Patel) to San Francisco. In San Francisco, while cocktailing in a strip club, Angelina meets Frances (James Franco) a well-off lawyer who offers to introduce her to a different kind of world, a place full of expensive dresses and fancy parties. But that world is not as perfect as it first appears and Frances has problems of his own. At the same time Angelina, using the moniker Cherry, has begun exploring the San Francisco porn industry under the direction of Margaret (Heather Graham) a former performer turned adult film director. -- (C) Official Site
What if I were a stripper
Beth was a victim of childhood sexual abuse until she was approximately 19 months old. Her mother died when she was one year old and she and her infant brother Jonathan were left at the mercy of their sadistic father. Beth describes her father’s abuse in matter-of-fact tones and displays a crayon picture of herself lying in bed weeping as he fondles her genitalia. Her voice is as eerily calm and flat when speaking about her own abuse as it is when talking about the abuse she inflicted on her brother. By the time Beth and Jonathan were rescued by Child Services she appeared to be indelibly scarred by neglect and severe abuse. The two children were given to loving parents, Tim and Julie, who themselves had no biological children. Tim and Julie were not given any information as to the children’s abusive background. At the time of the adoption little Jonathan was 7 months old. His head was flat at the back and bulged forward at the front from being left on his back in his crib all day. He couldn’t raise his head or roll over. Beth suffered from nightmares of a “man who was falling on her and hurting her with a part of himself.”
It took approximately two months until Beth’s parents discovered the truth about Beth and Jonathan’s upbringing. They recognized that both Beth and Jonathan exhibited disturbing behaviours. Julie caught Beth masturbating several times a day until she made her own vagina bleed and had to be hospitalized. Beth poked pins into her brother and into the Thomas’s pets. As she got older, on a particularly violent occasion she smashed her brother’s head into the cement floor of their basement until he needed stitches to close a gash in his forehead. Beth’s intention was not merely to harm her brother but to kill him.
Real life events
"A WINNING BLEND OF SOPHISTICATION AND SILLINESS"
Occasionally the comic incidents feel a little jarring and clunky, such as Richard's attempt to stash a dead body which stops just short of Weekend At Bernie's. Generally though, the story unfolds with a winning blend of sophistication and silliness. Dayton and Faris boldly satirise traditional American values without the easy cynicism - hilariously encapsulated by Olive's precocious posturing at the beauty contest. More importantly, as the Hoover clan gradually get to know one another, the journey becomes fully engaging and oddly poignant. It will definitely leave you with that feel-good glow.
Little Miss Sunshine
Full of silliness
These posters are targeting young teenage girls (also adults) because these posters have a strong use of bright colours such as yellow which is eye catching and reveals the theme "happiness". The use of images, such as the group of beauty pageants girls, indicates the theme of the film as it presents a family and a hateful message such as "I hate everyone" which reveals that there will be problems throughout the journey.
Birdsong is a two-part 2012 television drama, based on the 1993 war novel Birdsong by Sebastian Faulks. It stars Eddie Redmayne as Stephen Wraysford and Clémence Poésy as Isabelle Azaire and was directed by Philip Martin based on a screenplay by Abi Morgan.
Birdsong strongly uses colour to show a clear understanding of the separation between the past and the present.
Director Philip Martin uses dark and draining colours such as brown to resemble the time the scene was set in which was during WW1. The brown and yellow colour filters creates a warzone scenery, which instantly reflects a dark and hopeless mood.
The lighting is very dim which resembles the hope of the soldiers and foreshadows the unfortunate events which are yet to come. The dim lighting also narrows the spacing which indicates the relationship of the soldiers and how they must work together for survival.
The narrow spacing could also suggest how there is no escape from the pain and agony the soldiers are experiencing.
The weather is dark, rainy and cloudy which reflects the mood of the soldiers which is misery and death. To be able to create this weather, the lighting had to be dark and consist of brow, dull colour filters.
Philip Martin uses bright and calm colours to resemble the past. He has done this to show how the past is the only thing the soldier have to keep them alive and motivated. It resembles how the soldiers see the past as their dream of going back to because the lighting of dreams tend to be vivid and glowing. This makes the audience feel sympathetic towards the soldiers happiness because it’s a memory they cherish but can’t get back.
The weather of the past reflects the mood because it’s always sunny and bright which indicates peace and happiness. To be able to create this weather, the lighting must consists of bright, warm colour filters such as pink.
A film which also uses lighting to resemble time is Gladiator, British–American epic historical dramafilm directed by Ridley Scott. The movie was released in 2000 but was set in between 180 and 192 CE. Director Ridley Scott managed to create that scenery by applying golden colour filters to resemble power and strength. Both Gladiator and Birdsong use lighting to indicate the time which the scene was set in.
The comparison of the lighting between the past and the present is different because both lightin have a different scenery and mood to create. Lighting is very important when it comes to creating a scenery as it indicates time.
500 Word Essay On Lighting - Birdsong
“Scarred” is about Lisa (Mila Kunis), a 20-year-old girl. Being Lisa was not so easy as she had a traumatizing past. Her mother (Margaret Patrick) died of childbirth which was difficult as her dad sexually abused her when she was only 19 months old. One morning her boyfriend (Johnny Depp ) suggests she becomes one of his friend's strippers for money since they were on the urge of losing their worthless flat . She finally builds the courage to be a stripper, using the money to run away on from her beating boyfriend to San Francisco. In San Francisco, while cock-tailing in a strip club, Lisa meets Callum (James Morrison) a well known pimp who offers to introduce her to a different kind of world, a place full of expensive dresses and fancy parties. But that world is not as perfect as it first appears and Callum has problems of his own. At the same time Lisa, has flashbacks of her past and begun exploring the San Francisco porn industry under the direction of Lewis (Drake Graham). Her flashbacks become more vivid and finds it hard to go on… But does she continue?
"Scarred" - 200 Word Film Idea
Audiences and Producers
Ginger & Rosa is a 2012 drama film written and directed by Sally Potter and distributed by Artificial Eye. The film premiered at the Toronto International Film Festival on 7 September 2012, and was released on 19 October 2012 in the United Kingdom.
Presents 'BFI', awarding funds from 'The National Lottery'.
BBC Film. An 'Adventure Pictures' Production.
In association with; 'The Match Factory', 'Media House', 'Ingentious', 'Misofilm', and 'Danish Film Institute'.
Ginger and Rosa
BBC Films is the feature film-making arm of the BBC. It is firmly established at the forefront of British independent film-making and co-produces approximately eight films a year. Working in partnership with major international and UK distributors, BBC Films aims to make strong British films with range and ambition. We are committed to finding and developing new talent, as well as collaborating with some of the foremost writers and directors in the industry.
Fish Tank is a 2009 British drama film written and directed by Andrea Arnold. The film won the Jury Prize at the 2009 Cannes Film Festival. It also won the 2010 BAFTA for Best British Film. It was filmed in the Mardyke Estate in Havering, the town of Tilbury, and the A13, and funded by BBC Films and the UK Film Council.
Little Miss Sunshine explores how in a family, everyone has their own secret and struggles and need each other to solve their issues together. If they rely on themselves so solve their issues, the family will become more dysfunctional than it already is. For instance, when the boy finds out he is colour blind he wanted to be alone and rely on himself to feel better however his sister comforted him and in that moment he realised family is important to him and he needs them. This film gives a positive message and aware the audience that family is key and that they'll always support you no matter what stands in their way.
This film leaves the audience in joy and happy through it's strong ending and loving moral. The ending resembles reuniting and a family becoming one as they all go on stage for the comfort of Olive. This creates a warm glow feeling for the audience and also creates a humor through how silly the family look as they stand out.
This film resembles how the American society is based around presentation and perfection rather than love and care. This is presented when Olive's father comments negatively towards her eating chocolate ice-cream, calling her fat. This reflects how the American Society care more about "perfection" and "presentation" rather than the true quality of a family. If you compare the mood from the start to the end, it goes from dysfunctional to reuniting love. This all all because of the family not caring about how they look or what people have to say, at least they have each other.
English language 7/10
quality of the context 8/10
film terminology and vocabulary 3/10
there is no film terminology included but overall it was good
you got 18/30
Personally, I believe the film “Little Miss Sunshine” directed by Jonathan Dayton and Valerie Faris represents a dysfunctional family through the use of secrets and ambitions.
At the start of the film we are presented with an extreme close up of a young girls called Olive (actress Abigail Breslin) eyes which is a powerful camera shot as it foreshadows a dysfunctional family, because she’s wearing glasses which gives a reflection of a beautiful women who is also known as the winner of the Miss America beauty pageant. This illustrates to the audience the desire of perfection and high expectations within this family because the reflection we see in the glasses is expressing how this girl feels the need to be perfect and aim high due to the pressure the people she is surrounded by force on her.
When the granddad is taking drugs, the non-diegetic sound of the music stays constant which reflects how the rest of the family do not suspect his sly secret because the tempo of the music does not change and doesn't have an effect on the mood. This illustrates a dysfunctional family because the music reflects how secretive and sly the granddad is which links to lies and trust.
The performance of the characters in the two-shot scene in the cafe represents a dysfunctional family as their facial expression is very dull and reflects the miserable mood each character feels. The spacing between the characters is very distance as if to avoid a conversation between one another.
The non-diegetic sound of dishes and distance conversations makes the two-shot scene feel more awkward and dysfunctional, because the conversation between the characters are limited and argumentative which is overpowered by the non-diegetic sound to resemble how their hidden dysfunctional relationship isn’t noticeable on the outside because family reputation is vital.
In the scene where brother Dwayne (actor Paul Dano) horrifically breaks out of the car and begins to scream due to the fact he is colorblind, we are presented with a long shot of Dwayne on his own and the family distanced away from him with a worrying performance which truly establishes a dysfunctional relationship between the family. It is presented as dysfunctional because the family have trouble comforting Dwayne and are afraid to even try because his existence has always been ignored. During this scene, the camera is mainly focused on close ups of Dwayne’s facial expression to reveal how he is finally being noticed and heard by the other members of his family because he’s never the main priority which makes him feel unwanted and hurt.
other key crew members
Role pf producer
Cinematography - DOP and the crew camera
Production Design - Art Director and Dressers
Actors - Method and Typical Day
Sound - Booms, Fish poles and DATs
Costumes - Make-up and Hair
Special FX - Green Screen and Blood
Emotions, Senses, and Intellect
The audience would feel sympathy towards the protagonist, Claudia, therefore my film would come under the emotions category as I want to set a message across and really allow the audience to feel sympathy for Claudia. My film is not in the senses catigory because I want my audience to feel for the protagonist and relate to her in some way. My film can come under the intellect category because it’s dark in most areas which would make the viewers feel disturbed.
Original or Adapted
My film is original however some adaption is applied from the disturbing video “Child Rage” to resemble the protagonists past life.
Cinderella and Faust
My film comes under the “Cinderella” theme however in a dysfunctional way due to the history of my protagonist, Claudia, such as her father raping her at 19 months. It’s also a mixture of “Faust” because Claudia has a choice which would have a big impact in her life with an advantage however many disadvantages. Claudia has a decision of joining the pornstar life and getting paid well however, her disturbing memories of her rapist father haunts her making her visions more vivid.
My film “Thirsty” comes under the genre category “Drama” due to her dreams and hopes of finding out who she really is and “Thriller” because of her abusive history haunting her presentes. To create the genre I have to apply sinister sound to resemble horrific flashbacks and sexual music to present the sexual side of her life.
Claudia is my protagonist. To make her believable I had to think of someone who can play the role of that character so I am able to think of how she’d look, act, and present herself.
John (the pimp) is someone who is sneaky and handsome so I thought of a guy who I know has that ability to be all them things to help me picture my character.
Ronaldo is Claudia’s true lover, this means I have to think of someone who is kind and is slightly older than Claudia.
Claudia was born in London so therefore she has to have a London accent and would act like a London girl. Since she had a dysfunctional history she’ll find it hard to trust and communicate with people which makes her naive, meaning she has to approach people in a shy and uncomfortable way.
John moved to New York when he was 16 so he has big hopes and dreams and knows what to expect. This would make his character witty and sharp so he’d approach people in a confident way. However, he has learnt not to trust anyone, he always relied on himself because he had an abusive father who took drugs back in his hometown California. This means his character would be closed up and good at hiding his emotions making it hard for the viewers to understand his thoughts and feelings.
Ronaldo has lived in New York all his life with a caring single mother meaning he knows how to respect women and approach them in a suitable manner.
Claudia works for a srtip club to help her survive and pay the bills for her 2nd floor flat in Plumstead. She has one cat, no children, and an abusive boyfriend who she is trying to run away from. Her abusive boyfriend (Jack, has to be an English name since he is from London) lives with her however he does not work and steals Claudia’s money to buy drugs and alcohol. He ran away from his foster home when he was only 10 and was lured into the wrong crowd.
John lives in a mansion and gets his money by selling drugs and owning a pornography community. He is divorced and has a son but does not know it. He has expensive cars and is known as the “sex God” since he sleeps with his clients.
Ronaldo is stated as a middle-class worker, he has a nice home in the more quiet area of New York and lives on his own. He did have a partner who looks identical to Claudia but she passed away. Ronaldo also has a cat named Mr President since he has a humorous personality which Claudia admires.
Protagonists and Antagonists
The Protagonist is Claudia because we are following her journey. The antagonist are her dad (not named) haunting past and John the pimp because they cause problems for Claudia and stop her from achieving her aim.
Ronaldo is the anti hero because he helps Claudia achieve her goal and leads her to the right path, helping her to fight those who try to stop her.
Claudia’s motivation is to find happiness and being successful, to find someone who cares and who she can rely on. John’s motivation is to make Claudia his item and to lure her in the wrong path. Ronaldo’s aim is to find true love once again and keep Claudia safe, away from trouble.
The Conflict is John trying to make Claudia his item also for Claudia to fight her memories.
Claudia will have a dialogue at the start of the play, talking about her dreams and hopes.
Introduced with Claudia being beaten by abusive boyfriend
Jack forces Claudia to become a stripper
Claudia runs away to New York
Claudia meets John who gets her into prostitution
Claudia meets Ronaldo who helps her
John and Ronaldo fight
Claudia and Ronaldo have a safe ending
John has a child he does not know is his so he has his own journey of finding his son.
In 2005 BBC Films acquired the rights to adapt the book as a film. Executive producers Paula Jalfon and Christine Langan took it through the development stage, and were joined by executive producer Steven Soderbergh.
Lynne Ramsay, who became available signed on to direct the film We need To Talk About Kevin. Production had not begun by 2007, though BBC Films renewed the adaptation rights early in the year. Ramsay's spokesman told the newspaper that a new script draft was being prepared and, at the time the interview was published, had not been submitted to the producers. Michael Clayton producer Jennifer Fox joined the production team in 2008; the film was expected to begin shooting that year. The script appeared on the 2008 Brit List, a film-industry-compiled list of the best unproduced screenplays in British film. Ramsay's partner Rory Stewart Kinnear also contributed to the final shooting script.
Christine Langan told the London Evening Standard in February 2010 that the long delay in production had been caused by BBC Films having difficulty funding the high budget; Ramsay rewrote the script so the film could be made for a lower cost.The UK Film Council awarded £18,510 to the production from its development fund in the same month. Financial backing was also provided by Footprint Investments LLP, Caemhan Partnership LLP and Lipsync Productions, and production is in association with Artina Films and Forward Films.
The main stars are Tilda Swinton (Playing as Eva Khatchadourian the mother) , John C. Reilly (Playing as Franklin the dad), and Ezra Miller (Playing Kevin).
The film was pre-produced in March 2010 with a production budget of $7,000,000.
The casts are: Tilda Swinton as Eva Khatchadourian
John C. Reilly as Franklin Plaskett, Ezra Miller as Kevin Khatchadourian, Jasper Newell as six- to eight-year-old Kevin, Rocky Duer as infant Kevin
Ashley Gerasimovich as Celia Khatchadourian, Siobhan Fallon Hogan as Wanda, Alex Manette as Colin.
In March it was reported that Ramsay, a Scot who enjoyed success with We Need to Talk About Kevin in 2011, had left the film to be replaced by Gavin O’Connor, an American director.
Filming commenced on 19 April 2010 on location in Stamford, Connecticut, and concluded on 28 May 2010. A key filming location was J.M. Wright Technical High School in Stamford. Jonny Greenwood of the band Radiohead composed the film's score.
Seamus McGarvey is the director of Cinematography - DOP and the crew camera.
The Production Design
Art directed by Charles Kulsziski.
Set decorations directed by Heather Loeffler.
Costume designed by Catherine George
Make-up department: Chris Clark ... hair stylist
Carolyn Cousins - hair designer: Spain / makeup designer: Spain
Patricia Grande - key hair stylist (as Patricia Grand)
Maya Hardinge - department head makeup
Michelle Johnson - department head hair
Julia Lallas - key makeup artist
Craig Lindberg - special makeup effects artist
Christopher Milone - makeup artist
Cynthia O'Rourke - makeup artist
Gregory Purcell - hair stylist
Alexis Arnold - production supervisor
Gisela Evert - post-production supervisor
Fiona Morham - head of production: UK Film Council
Len Murach - assistant unit production manager
Robert Salerno - unit production manager
Gina Soler - production manager: Spain
Second Unit Director or Assistant Director
AIvan J. Fonseca - first assistant director
Marcos González Palma -second second assistant director
Federico Untermann -first assistant director: Spain
Adam T. Weisinger - second assistant director (as Adam Weisinger)
Stuart Bagshaw - foley editor
Paul Davies - sound designer
Robert Farr - adr mixer / sound re-recording mixer
Claire Houghtalen - boom operator
Rob Hughes - assistant adr mixer
Ken Ishii - production sound mixer
Iván Martínez-Rufat - sound recordist: Spain (as Ivan Martinez-Rufat)
Brendan Jamieson O'Brien - boom operator (as Brendan O'Brien)
Joe Origlieri - sound utility
Keith Partridge - foley engineer
Chris Quested - dolby consultant (as Christopher Quested)
Santiago Serra - sound recordist: Spain (as Santi Serra)
Barnaby Smyth - foley artist / foley recordist
Andrew Stirk - adr editor / dialogue editor
Yanti Windrich - assistant adr mixer / sound assistant
Scott Cannizzaro - adr mixer (uncredited)
Julien Pirrie - foley assistant (uncredited)
Milos Stojanovic - adr recordist (uncredited)
Special Effects by
Drew Jiritano - special effects coordinator
Craig Lindberg - special effects prosthetics: broken arm
Andrew Mortelliti - special effects foreman (as Andrew Morteletti)
Joseph Mortelliti - special effects assistant
Mike Myers - special effects assistant
David Presto -. special effects prosthetics: arrows
A biting, penetrating and often humorous take on contemporary life in suburban America, Lester Burnham becomes intrigued by a young girl named Angela, and this fascination sparks him to make some major changes in his life. He relishes these changes, much to the exasperation of his wife Carolyn.
Initial release: September 8, 1999 (USA)
Stars: Kevin Spacey, Annette Bening, Thora Birch
Director: Sam Mendes
Screenplay: Alan Ball
Cinematography: Conrad L. Hall
Awards: Academy Award for Best Picture, More
British films borrow money from over 5 companies to make a film, overall the budget is usually limite. This makes it harder for British companies to create a profit rather than a loss because they are very small company.
British films have a lot in common such as use of lighting, style of character, and also use of props.
“Fishtank” was written and directed by Andrea Arnold. The British film was set in the rough part of South East London which is where the film “Anuvahood” was also set in, directed by Adam Deacon and Daniel Toland. The characters in both British films were presented as “chavs” and “rebellious” through the use of British slang language and mise-en-scene.
The protagonists of the two films wear grey tracksuit bottoms to stereotype the rough characters in Southeast London. This illustrates how British films mainly focus on stereotypes which overexaggerates the characters.
The tone of music in both films is upbeat, targeting a certain genre which is rap. The non-diegetic sound of music reflects the personality of the characters which is dangerous and violent because upbeat rap music is stereotypically associated with troubled young youth who cause trouble which creates an uncomfortable scenery.This reflects the mood and journey of the protagonist, for instance at the start of Fishtank the music is very upbeat and mysterious which reflects the difficult situation the protagonists is at.
In the opening sequence of Anuvahood, the audience are instantly revealed with a negative vibe from the young youth through their use of slang words. The use of slang stereotypes the young youth as uneducated and troubled because slang is very informal and typically restricts to a particular group of people such as chavs and “gangsters” which are usually presented as folk-demons to the elder generation. The reason as to why these British Film have hiphop/rap non-diegetic music playing and edged mise-en-scene is because British films have this habit of stereotyping young youth as trouble. It helps make the film more natural and relate to real life situations which most British films do.
British Film Similarities
American Beauty is a 1999 American drama film directed by Sam Mendes and written by Alan Ball. Kevin Spacey stars as office worker Lester Burnham, who has a midlife crisis when he becomes infatuated with his teenage daughter's best friend, Angela (Mena Suvari). Annette Bening co-stars as Lester's materialistic wife, Carolyn, and Thora Birch plays their insecure daughter, Jane; Wes Bentley, Chris Cooper, and Allison Janney also feature. The film has been described by academics as a satire of American middle class notions of beauty and personal satisfaction; analysis has focused on the film's explorations of romantic and paternal love, sexuality, beauty, materialism, self-liberation, and redemption.
American Beauty has a theme of dysfunctional relationships between the characters. Each member of the two families have their hidden secrets such as mid-life crises, true love, and being truthful to who they are.
Similarly, “Little Miss Sunshine” directed by Jonathan Dayton and Valerie Faris represents a dysfunctional family through the use of secrets and ambitions as well as the film “American Beauty”.
The theme of both American Beauty and Little Miss Sunshine is dysfunctional relationships however, the main deformed relationships are between the children and the parents.There’s a powerful scene in the film Little Miss Sunshine where brother Dwayne (actor Paul Dano) horrifically breaks out of the car and begins to scream due to the fact he is colorblind, we are presented with a long shot of Dwayne on his own and the family distanced away from him with a worrying performance which truly establishes a dysfunctional relationship between Dwayne and his family. It is presented as dysfunctional because the family have trouble comforting Dwayne and are afraid to even try because his existence has always been ignored. During this scene, the camera is mainly focused on close ups of Dwayne’s facial expression to reveal how he is finally being noticed and heard by the other members of his family because he’s never the main priority which makes him feel unwanted and hurt.
Dwayne significantly relates to the character Jane (played by actress Thora Birch) in American Beauty who is also a child. The similarities between Jane and Dwayne is through the hate relationship between them and the parents also the ignorans of their existence. The relationship between Jane and her father Lester is established in the middle of the film as she explains her true inner thoughts towards her father. We are presented with a handheld medium shot of Jane looking directly into the camera as she slowly agrees to kill her father. This reflects how much she despises her father and doesn’t see him as a father figure but an enemy, someone who has emotionally scared her.
Both Dwayne and Jane are emotionally damaged through ignorance and false love their family forcefully pour over them, they’ve both never sensed real love or affection.
The audience feel pathos towards the children because we as audience witness their true emotions and establish the way their parents never put them as their main priority but their last.
American Beauty and Little Miss Sunshine
Days of Wine and Roses
An alcoholic falls in love with and gets married to a young woman, whom he systematically addicts to booze so they can share his "passion" together.
Director: Blake Edwards
Writer: J.P. Miller
Jack Lemmon, Lee Remick, Charles Bickford
The aging patriarch of an organized crime dynasty transfers control of his clandestine empire to his reluctant son.
Director: Francis Ford Coppola
Mario Puzo (screenplay), Francis Ford Coppola (screenplay)
Stars: Marlon Brando, Al Pacino, James Caan
Don't Answer The Phone!
A deeply disturbed photographer and Vietnam veteran, named Kirk Smith, terrorizes Los Angeles by going around strangling lingerie-clad young women in their homes.
Director: Robert Hammer
Robert Hammer (screenplay), Michael D. Castle (screenplay
Stars:James Westmoreland, Ben Frank, Flo Lawrence
Forrest Gump, while not intelligent, has accidentally been present at many historic moments, but his true love, Jenny Curran, eludes him.
Director: Robert Zemeckis
Winston Groom (novel), Eric Roth (screenplay)
Tom Hanks, Robin Wright, Gary Sinise
When a Roman general is betrayed and his family murdered by an emperor's corrupt son, he comes to Rome as a gladiator to seek revenge.
Director: Ridley Scott
Writers: David Franzoni (story), John Logan
Stars: Russell Crowe, Joaquin Phoenix, Connie Nielsen
A frustrated writer struggles to keep his family alive when a series of global catastrophes threatens to annihilate mankind.
Director: Roland Emmerich
Writers: Roland Emmerich, Harald Kloser
Stars: John Cusack, Thandie Newton, Chiwetel Ejiofor
Introduction has been copied and pasted, at least put it into your own words because plagiarism will not benefit your grade. However, despite this you have made a good display of analysis as you have related your points back to the film. Well done! - For improvements, you could choose some other themes and relate to the question and use more film specific vocabulary.
[5/10] 33 marks/ 66%
Landowners Harvey & Daeida Henderson Wilcox name their ranch Hollywood after Daeida met a woman in Ohio whose country house was called “Hollywood” for the English holly and woods.
The Electric Theater, the first movie theater built for that purpose, by Thomas Lincoln Tally in downtown Los Angeles. Admission was 10 cents for a one-reel movie.
The first film crew, from the Selig Polyscope Company, films in Los Angeles with Occidental Studios founder Hobart Bosworth starring.
Twentieth Century Fox spent about $75 million to produce the first X-Men movie in 2000. But X-Men: The Last Stand, released this year, cost $210 million to make, according to online box office tracker Box Office Mojo.
Hollywood will always spend more for a sequel to a successful movie–stars of the original have more leverage to demand bigger paydays, and studios heads feel, with some justification, that a sequel is a safer box office bet. But as the escalating X-Men price tags show, blockbuster budgets are growing ever bigger.
Fish Tank is a 2009 British drama film written and directed by Andrea Arnold. The film won the Jury Prize at the 2009 Cannes Film Festival. It also won the 2010 BAFTA for Best British Film. It was filmed in the Mardyke Estate in Havering, the town of Tilbury, and the A13, and funded by BBC Films and the UK Film Council.
Budget: $3 million
Box office: $2,357,852
Steven Rodney "Steve" McQueen CBE (born 9 October 1969) is a British film director, screenwriter, and video artist. He is a winner of the Caméra d'Or and a BAFTA. His 2013 film, 12 Years a Slave, won him the award for best director from the New York Film Critics Circle, as well as winning the Golden Globe Award for Best Motion Picture at the 71st Golden Globe Awards. McQueen is known for his collaborations with actor Michael Fassbender, who has starred in all of McQueen's three feature films as of 2013.
Box office: £2,207,877
1) Film became to be accepted during the early 1900s. The practice to watch movies as a form of entertainment came to be accepted socially and thought of as normal, everyday experience.
2) In order to make money from the movies the early exhibitors of film had attract the public to a venue where people could be charged for waching the products on offer.
3) Early cinema were primitive affairs, a former shop that had been cleared and filled with chairs or a fairground tent erected in one town after the other.
In 1910s and 1920s some areas in America the concept had been developed to the stage where cinemas were grand places and known as 'picture places'. These venues were like 'palaces', with rich drapes, thick carpets, intricate plasterwork, magnificent enterance halls, expensive chandelier lighting, sweeping flights of stairs and uniformed usher whose job was to treat patrespect due to their better.
4) Large immigrant communities in the United States, silent cinema was an especially appropriate form of entertainment that was always likely to become more instantly popular.
The cinema was at the height of itd popularity immediately after the Second World War with 90 million visits a week being made to cinemas in America and more than 30 million a week in Britain.
5) Early cinemas was based around the whole experience. People would dress up to look presentable and meet new people where as nowdays peoples intentions of going to the cinema is to watch a movie and walk out, avoiding their surroundings.
6) Films are no longer solely or even mainly consumed in the cinema. Young people in particular watch filmsscreens using various models of DVD players. Cinema admissions in Britain fell 4 per cent in 2005, and in the USA the box-office was down 9 per cent.
7) The trend of home consumption begain in the 1960s when studios started to realize that they could use television to show films long after they had passed their sell-by date for cinema exhibition. Video systems began to be cheap and lightweight enough to be marketable on a commercial scaleand rental outlets began to supply feature films to the expanding market.
8) The role of the audience is to turn up and watch the films; but more importantly for an industry prespective the audience has to be prepeared to pay money for the on offer. The audience clearly have to see the product as being worth the rpice being asked. If they are unsure of this and marketing is unable to convince the whole business of filmmaking on a commercial scale is no longer viable.
9) The power of the audience within the film concept-to-screen process becomes clearer if we bear in mind from the start that the industry could churn out as many films as they wish, but unless the punters materialize in the cinema the products on offer will never come to represent a commercial prosition.
10) Films need audience because without an audience, the producers are unavle to make a profit. The audience have to have intereast in the film in order to spend money for it which is why we have an importance in the film industry. We are lured in to watching a film through the use of advertising such as trailers also social networks such as twitter and Facebook.
11) There is a very real sense in which if we are unable to detach ourselves and analyse what is happening to ourselves and others as we watch, making us at risk of being controlledand (even manipulated in dangerous ways) by what is undeniably a pleasurable experience.
There is a simple human pleasure of looking or scopophilia, and voyeurism, the act of watching others without their knowledge, noth of which have been explored in film theory in relation to the act of watching films in a darkened room.
12) Aquent intervals every society seems to become worries that some group within the community is being corrupter in some way by a certain arm of the media. At this stage what have been known as moral panics break out as those who in some way see themselves as guardians of traues feel that social attitudes they believe in are under threat.
World renowned film stars whose names live on forever such as Marilyn Monroe and James Dean may have passed but the appeal of high profile actors is still very large.
The majority of the films in the list did however have very large budgets; Avatar’s was over $300,000,000 which means probably half of that was spent on marketing. Avatar and Ice Age were shown in 3D in most multiplex cinemas in the UK which also contributes to the appeal and accessibility of the films.
the appeal of film stars may have been higher with films such as Ocean’s Eleven, a film filled with Hollywood A-listers like George Clooney, Brad Pitt and Matt Damon grossing over $450,000,000 in 2001
Not all independent films would support the idea the stars have been rendered obsolete, Ken Loach’s 2009 film ‘Looking for Eric’ may have attracted a niche audience due to its football related narrative but it did feature footballing legend Eric Cantona.
Item 1 in the resource material suggests that stars have been replaced in importance by films like ‘Saw’ and ‘Final Destination’ that are part of a brand, one series of films which supports this are the ‘Harry Potter’ films taking billions at the box office and starring people that before these films were unknown British school children. The article also stresses the importance of the internet comparative to the old fashioned and now outdated campaigns featuring posters and TV adverts
stars are no longer required is untrue, there is however less reliance on big names to sell a film now.
Johnny Depp - Jack Sparrow
Orlando Bloom - Will Turner
Keira Knightley - Elizabeth Swann
Pirates of the Caribbean
Daniel Radcliffe - Harry Potter
Emma Watson - Hermione Granger
Rupert Grint - Ron Weasley
A movie star (also known as a film star and cinema star) is a celebrity who is well-known, or famous, for his or her starring, or leading, roles in motion pictures. The term may also apply to an actor or actress who is recognized as a marketable commodity and whose name is used to promote a movie in trailers and posters. The most widely known, prominent or successful actors are sometimes called “superstars” by writers and journalists.
It is clear to see that a film star can contribute to the success of a film. Fans of stars may go to watch especially as their favourite actor/actress appears in that film. Since the beginning of cinemas showing silent films in the 1920s, to today's cinema, directors have been casting recognisable faces, believing that they will attract a bigger audience than an 'unknown' actor/actress. In the majority of director's eyes a big film star, means 'big bucks'.
Actrors become publicised through starring in successful films, looks and the publicity within the media.
Stars are influencial in selling films as they may have acted briliantly in previous films, made it "better". For instance Johnny Depp is a well known attractive actor who played as Jack Sparrow in Pirates of the Caribeean. From then on the audience expect a great performance by him from other films and therefore watch it.
'Neither producers nor audiences need stars any more.' How far do you agree with this statement?
2004 ...And They Lived Happily Ever After
Into the Woods (post-production)
2014 London Fields (post-production)
2014 Mortdecai (post-production)
2014 Transcendence (completed)
2013 The Lone Ranger
2012 Family Guy (TV Series)
- Lois Comes Out of Her Shell (2012) ... Edward Scissorhands (voice)
2012 Dark Shadows
2012 21 Jump Street
Tom Hanson (uncredited)
2012 Paul McCartney: My Valentine (Video short)
2011 Life's Too Short (TV Series)
- Episode #1.2 (2011) ... Johnny Depp
2011 The Rum Diary
2011 Lego Pirates of the Caribbean: The Video Game (Video Game)
2011 Pirates of the Caribbean: On Stranger Tides
Rango / Lars (voice)
2010 The Tourist
2010/I Alice in Wonderland
2009 Public Enemies
2009 The Imaginarium of Doctor Parnassus
Imaginarium Tony 1
2009 SpongeBob SquarePants (TV Series)
Jack Kahuna Laguna
- SpongeBob SquarePants vs. The Big One (2009) ... Jack Kahuna Laguna (voice)
1999-2009 American Masters (TV Series documentary)
Narrator / Jack Kerouac
- The Doors: When You're Strange (2009) ... Narrator (voice)
- The Source: The Story of the Beats and the Beat Generation (1999) ... Jack Kerouac
2007 Sweeney Todd: The Demon Barber of Fleet Street
2007 Bloopers of the Caribbean (Video short)
Jack Sparrow (uncredited)
2007 Pirates of the Caribbean: At World's End
2006 Bloopers of the Caribbean (Video short)
Jack Sparrow (uncredited)
2006 Pirates of the Caribbean: Dead Man's Chest
2006 Pirates of the Caribbean: The Legend of Jack Sparrow (Video Game)
Jack Sparrow (voice)
2005 Corpse Bride
Victor Van Dort (voice)
2005 Charlie and the Chocolate Factory
2004 The Libertine
2004 Finding Neverland
Sir James Matthew Barrie
2004 ...And They Lived Happily Ever After
2004 King of the Hill (TV Series)
- Hank's Back (2004) ... Yogi Victor (voice)
2004 Secret Window
2003 Blooper Reel (Video short)
Jack Sparrow (uncredited)
2003 Once Upon a Time in Mexico
2003 Pirates of the Caribbean: The Curse of the Black Pearl
2001 From Hell
Inspector Frederick Abberline
2000 The Fast Show (TV Series)
Customer in suit store
- The Last Ever Fast Show (2000) ... Customer in suit store
2000 Before Night Falls
Bon Bon / Lieutenant Victor
2000 The Man Who Cried
2013 Oz the Great and Powerful
2012 Family Guy: Back to the Multiverse (Video Game)
Meg Griffin (voice)
2011 Good Vibes (TV Series)
2011 Friends with Benefits
2010 Family Guy Presents: It's a Trap (Video)
Meg Griffin (voice)
2010 Black Swan
Lily / The Black Swan
2010 Date Night
2010 The Late Late Show with Craig Ferguson (TV Series)
- Episode #6.85 (2010) ... Snooki
2010 The Book of Eli
2009 Family Guy Presents: Seth & Alex's Almost Live Comedy Show (TV Short)
Meg Griffin (voice)
2009 The Cleveland Show (TV Series)
- Pilot (2009) ... Meg Griffin (voice)
2009 Tom Cool
2008 Max Payne
2008 Boot Camp
2008 Forgetting Sarah Marshall
2007 The Hills with James Franco and Mila Kunis (Video short)
2007 The Family Guy 100th Episode Celebration (TV Movie)
Meg Griffin (voice)
2007 After Sex
2007 Moving McAllister
2006 Family Guy (Video Game)
Meg Griffin (voice)
2006 Saints Row (Video Game)
1998-2006 That '70s Show (TV Series)
- That '70s Finale (2006) ... Jackie Burkhart
- Love of My Life (2006) ... Jackie Burkhart
- Leaving Home Ain't Easy (2006) ... Jackie Burkhart
- Special: The Final Goodbye (2006) ... Jackie Burkhart
- We Will Rock You (2006) ... Jackie Burkhart
Show all 201 episodes
2005 Family Guy Presents Stewie Griffin: The Untold Story (Video)
Meg Griffin / Additional Voices (voice)
2004 Grounded for Life (TV Series)
- The Policy of Truth (2004) ... Lana
- Space Camp Odditty (2004) ... Lana
2004 The Latin Lover (Short)
Girl on street
2004 Tony 'n' Tina's Wedding
2000-2002 Get Real (TV Series)
- The Last Weekend (2002) ... Taylor Vaughn
- Tested (2000) ... Taylor Vaughn
2002 MADtv (TV Series)
- Episode #8.7 (2002) ... Daisy
2002 American Psycho II: All American Girl (Video)
2001 Get Over It
Men, Women & Children (post-production)
2014 The Cobbler (post-production)
2014 Blended (completed)
2013 Grown Ups 2
2012 Hotel Transylvania
2012 That's My Boy
2011/I Jack and Jill
Jack Sadelstein / Jill Sadelstein
Donald the Monkey (voice)
2011 Just Go with It
2010 Grown Ups
2009 Funny People
2008 Bedtime Stories
2008 You Don't Mess with the Zohan
2007 I Now Pronounce You Chuck & Larry
2007 The King of Queens (TV Series)
Jeff 'The beast' Sussman
- Mild Bunch (2007) ... Jeff 'The beast' Sussman (uncredited)
2007 Reign Over Me
2005 Deuce Bigalow: European Gigolo
Javier Sandooski (uncredited)
2005 The Longest Yard
2004 50 First Dates
2003 Blossoms & Blood (Video short)
2003 Couch (TV Short)
Couch Testing Man
2003 Anger Management
2003 Pauly Shore Is Dead
Adam Sandler (voice)
2002 The Hot Chick
Mambuza Bongo Guy (uncredited)
2002 Eight Crazy Nights
Davey / Whitey / Eleanore / ... (voice)
2002 Mr. Deeds
2002 Punch-Drunk Love
2001 The Animal
2000 Little Nicky
2014 Good People (completed)
2013 Richard Peter Johnson (completed)
2014 Veronica Mars
James Franco (uncredited)
Morgan 'Gator' Bodine
2013 The Mindy Project (TV Series)
- The Other Dr. L (2013) ... Paul Leotard
- All My Problems Solved Forever... (2013) ... Paul Leotard
2013 Third Person
2013 Child of God
2013 Palo Alto
2013 This Is the End
2013 As I Lay Dying
2013 Oz the Great and Powerful
2013 Interior. Leather Bar.
2012 Hollywood Heights (TV Series)
- The Final Concert (2012) ... Osbourne Silver
- Jetsetter (2012) ... Osbourne Silver
- Loren's Recording Session (2012) ... Osbourne Silver
- Eddie Questions His Feelings (2012) ... Osbourne Silver
- Chloe's Secret (2012) ... Osbourne Silver
Show all 6 episodes
2012/IV The Letter
2012 Spring Breakers
2012 The Iceman
2012 FCU: Fact Checkers Unit (TV Series)
- James Franco Is Preggers (2012) ... James
2012 Rebel Dabble Babble
Jim Stark / James Dean
2009-2012 General Hospital (TV Series)
- Episode #1.12473 (2012) ... Franco
- Episode #1.12472 (2012) ... Franco
- Episode #1.12443 (2011) ... Franco
- Episode #1.12429 (2011) ... Franco
- Episode #1.12428 (2011) ... Franco
Show all 54 episodes
2011/II Rebel (Short)
2011 Rise of the Planet of the Apes
2011 The Broken Tower
2011 Your Highness
2011 The Colbert Report (TV Series)
Frank Jameso / Himself - Guest
- James Franco (2011) ... Frank Jameso / Himself - Guest
2011 The Green Hornet
Danny Crystal Cleer (uncredited)
2010 127 Hours
2010 Love & Distrust (Video)
Travis (segment: "Grasshopper" by Eric Kmetz)
2010 Eat Pray Love
2010 Masculinity & Me (Short)
2010 Shadows & Lies
2010 Date Night
2010 30 Rock (TV Series)
- Klaus and Greta (2010) ... James Franco
2008 Nights in Rodanthe
Mark Flanner (uncredited)
2008 Pineapple Express
2007 The Hills with James Franco and Mila Kunis (Video short)
2007 In the Valley of Elah
Sgt. Dan Carnelli
2007 Spider-Man 3 (Video Game)
Harry Osborn / New Goblin (voice)
2007 Good Time Max
2007 Spider-Man 3
New Goblin / Harry Osborn
2007 Knocked Up
2007 Finishing the Game: The Search for a New Bruce Lee
Boyfriend on Phone (voice)
2007 An American Crime
2006 The Dead Girl
2006 Grasshopper (Short)
2006 The Wicker Man
Bar Guy #1
2006 Tristan + Isolde
2005 Fool's Gold
2005 The Great Raid
2005 The Ape
2004 Spider-Man 2
2003 The Company
2002 City by the Sea
2002 Blind Spot
2002 Mother Ghost
2002 You Always Stalk the Ones You Love
2002 The Car Kid (Short)
2002 Deuces Wild
2001 James Dean (TV Movie)
2001 Mean People Suck (Short)
2001 Some Body
Apartment Guy 3 (uncredited)
2001 The X-Files (TV Series)
- Surekill (2001) ... Officer #2
2000 If Tomorrow Comes
Projection of moving images to create original silent movies.
Attempts to introduce colour processes and synchronized sound.
Successful introduction of sound (the 'talkies') which led to massive changes in the industry.
Adoption of colour and widescreen in an effort to combat the competition from television caused by the mass production of TV set.
Unsuccessful effort to offer the public three-dimensional film in the same period.
Increasing use of television as a media for showing films with accompanying realization that in this way old films could be recycled or resold.
Advent of VHS rental and recordings opened up the possibility of reselling old films but re-releasing relatively new films to a new "window" after a period at the cinema.
Introduction of satellite and cable channel which offered a furthur 'window' after a period at the cinema.
Increased marekting of 'home cinema concept' from the 1990s , with technology allowing larger screens and surround sound something approaching an aogous cinema experience becomes possible.
Qualitative experience, result of better sound and image reproduction.
A heightened emotional experience as a result of a stronger sense of empathy with characters who in some way seem more real.
Enhanced spectacle perhaps through the sheer overpowering size of the screen or the ompact on the senses of a surrounding wall of sound.
Improved ease of access, or ease of use, for instance, through enabling people to own their own film collection in various formats.
New, easier and intensified ways of using film to pleasure themselves, for example, IMAX would seem to offer an intense 'fairground ride' for the senses.
An enhanced intellectual experience through the provision of increased knowledge or understanding, for instance through the use of commentaries by directors on DVDz.
Hollywood's greatest period of fame and cultural importance was arguably during the 1930s and 1940s in that period we have called the Studio System but which has also been described as The Golden Age of Hollywood or Classical Hollywood, and is sometimes known simply as Old Hollywood.
Under the Studio System a few major comnies tried as far as possible to make, distribute and show their own films, thereby effectively exerting direct control over all three stages of the process.
During the early years of the Stystem a few top executives such as Jack Warner and Darryl Zanuck at Warner Brothers would oversee all film production effectively keeping a tight personal control over everything that was going on in 'their' studio.
In contemporary Hollywood there is what is known as a 'package unit' system at work: studio spaceted and personnel hired for the duration of the one project. Indicidual producers now have to put together a one-off package of finance, personnel, equipment and studio times for each film being made. The main Hollywood companies were driven over to this system in an effort to cut expenditure in the 1950s in order to survive in the face of the decline of cinemagoing as a leidure activity.
Unit-producer system is where a crew worked together under one producer to complete six to eight films a year. These teams of workers, employed directly by the studio, would sometimes specialize in particular genre: examples often include Arthur Freed's unit at MGM.
Under old Hollywood struvtures, actros and directors were very much subservient to studio producers and executives. They were told to work on one project and then when that was finished they were assigned by their studio bosses to a new project: contracted to the studios they were quite simply at the beck-and-call of those studios.
Nowadays, both directors and stars have agents cutting deals for them and they (and their agents) have become relatively more powerful within the business, especially since they are no londer held under exclusive contracts to one particular studio as they were in the past.
The studios were prepared to support the emergence of independent producers who offered them greater business flexibility, enabling them to pick and choose projects. The studios could back a particular production with these independent producers without any need to bankroll a workforce that streched from stars to catering staff on a long-term basis.
Under the studio system producers exerted overall management control at any one time across a range of film projects that might be at various stages of completion. They would bring together a team of workers to complete each project under the supporting umbrella of the studio.
Cheap-ce movies likely to offer good percentage profits. In the era of Old Hollywood companies such as Columbia and Universal invested in cheap B-movies from early in theb 1930s. As the Depresstion hit America some cinemas began trying to attract hard-up customers by offering two feature films instead of one, creating demand for these cheap supporting films.