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Climate Change

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Mick ODriscoll

on 25 April 2013

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Transcript of Climate Change

Michael ODriscoll & Sandra Pena

Concordia University, MPH 520

2013 Welcome To Our Climate Change Prezi What is being done about Climate Change? How does natural Greenhouse Effect work? Is it good or bad? As temperature increases, water expands and takes up more volume.This is called Thermal Expansion. Long term measurements demonstrate that sea levels are rising from thermal expansion and from melting glaciers (New England Aquarium, 2013). Decrease in snow pack and Arctic ice cap. Deforestation Let's begin with a brief lesson: What are fossil fuels and why do we use them in our society?

Fossil fuels are also known as hydrocarbon fuels. Same thing, two different names. Fossil fuels: One of
the biggest contributors
to climate change. The nation that destroys its soil destroys itself. -Theodore Roosevelt Welcome to the Climate Control Center- this includes videos, references, photos, websites, and data charts. Physics of Greenhouse effect:

The Greenhouse effect is vital to allow life as we know it to survive on earth.

The inner most layer of earth's atmosphere is called the troposphere and consists of two main gases: Nitrogen (N) and Oxygen (O2). Other trace gases in the troposphere are: water vapor (H2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (NO), and ozone (O3). All function as greenhouse gases and are needed for our continued survival. Solar radiation (energy) from the sun is absorbed by the earth.

Greenhouse gases in the troposphere absorb some of that heat energy and radiate it back toward the earth, warming the earths surface.

This return of energy keeps the earth warm to support life and is known as the Natural Greenhouse Effect. Water Vapor and Carbon Dioxide contribute the most to Natural Greenhouse Warming and keep our planets temperature in balance- not too warm and not too cold this is essential so crops can grow and people can survive. Climate change: How does it happen? Increased levels of greenhouse gases retain more heat in the atmosphere which increases temperature of the earth. Carbon Dioxide is the largest contributor to anthropogenic greenhouse warming.

Human activities, such as the burning of fossil fuels (dirty fuels) increase Carbon Dioxide (CO2) in atmosphere. Increased carbon dioxide concentrations is warming the planet...

...Don't believe it? follow us to our climate control center! Increase global temperature melts snow cover and sea ice, warming the oceans changing weather patterns.

Let's take a closer look at the effects climate change is having on the Arctic ice cap and on glaciers...Come along, don't fall behind :) Thermal expansion contributed to 2.5 cm sea level rise during second half of 20th century.

Doesn't sound like a lot does it?

After all, 2.5 cm equals about 1/2 inch.

How can that matter? Loss of total ice mass from just Greenland would cause the sea level to rise roughly 7 meters (EPA, 2012). Now that's more than 1/2 inch!

Currently, the amount of water locked up in present-day Antarctic ice sheet is enough to raise sea-level by 200 feet. Global concentration of carbon dioxide has increased during Industrial Age from 280 ppm to 379 ppm (IPCC WGI Fourth Assessment Report) and will continue to increase unless alternative sources of renewable energies are discovered. Observations since 1961, shows ocean temperatures have increased to depths of at least 3000 meters (IPCC WGI).

It also shows that, the ocean has been absorbing more than 50% of the heat added to the climate system (Nature, 2000). 97% of all climate scientists agree climate change is occurring!(P.T.Doran, 2009). Increased layer of greenhouse gases 1824: Established existence of natural greenhouse effect 1859: Corroborated heat-trapping abilities of greenhouse gases 1890: Calculated effect of fossil fuel use on global temperature 1938: Connected rise in carbon dioxide levels to increased earth temperature 1958:
Began to measure atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide Picture Studio Data Center Movie Studio 1985: United Nations Environment Program (UNEP), World Meteorological Organization (WMO), and the International Council of Scientific Unions (ISCU) agreed to consensus of international community about global warming.

1988: Intergovernmental Panel on climate change (IPCC) established. 1995: IPCC makes official statement,"there is a discernible human influence on global climate".

1997: Kyoto Protocol adopted by 160 nations to limit emissions. 2001: IPCC provides stronger evidence of climate change attributed to human activity.

2002: Kyoto Protocol ratified by more than 100 nations-but not by U.S. or Australia (wikipedia, 2013). 2007: IPCC presents evidence that "greenhouse gas cause of temperature increase in [the] last 50 years".

2012: Nearly 1,200 mayors from cities in the US have signed a 'Climate Protection Agreement' that embraces emissions reductions from the Kyoto Protocol. Coal Plant Satellite images show over a 40% decline of frozen Arctic sea in last 40 years (Guardian, 2012).

Since 1870, global sea level has risen about 8 inches. New international study shows Antarctica ice sheet losing 65 billion tons of ice every year (NASA, 2012).

This only accounts for 1/5 of total sea level rise. Since 1992, this ice melt has added over a 1/2 inch to sea level rise (NASA, 2012).

Doesn't take much rise in sea levels to start causing catastrophic changes in erosion, storms, and flooding. The sea ice plays a critical role in regulating climate. It acts as a giant mirror that reflects sun's energy, helping to cool the Earth. Climate change refers to changes in the long term averages and variations in weather. Currently, the amount of water locked up in present-day Antarctic ice sheet is enough to raise sea-level by 200 feet. Increasing temperatures will effect all life on our planet. This is everyone's problem to help solve! Ice caps will melt, sea levels will rise, and weather patterns will be affected. Ecosystems will face extinction and public health issues will become gradually more serious. Push Here Push Here Push Here Push Here Push Here Bad News! Industrial Age Glacial Melt Sea Ice Extent Hottest Years Infectious Disease Temperature and Carbon Dioxide Which countries have the highest portion of carbon dioxide emissions?

You get two guesses...

...Together these two countries have more than 50% of all carbon dioxide emissions. Doesn't sound like a lot does it? After all, 2.5 cm = about 1/2 inch. How can that matter? Winter days becoming hotter in Antarctica We are losing hundreds of square miles of ice each year in Antarctica! 2001 2008 More heat will stay in the atmosphere Beautiful forests covers 31% of the land area on our planet (worldwildlife.org) Every hour, at least 4,500 acres of forest fall to chain saws, machetes, flames, or bulldozers with a total loss of about 18 million acres a year (facingthefuture.org).

Not all deforestation is intentional. Some is caused by a combination of human and natural factors like wildfires and subsequent overgrazing (nationalgeographics.com). At the current rate, the world's rainforests could potentially vanish in the next 100 years! (nationalgeographics.com). Why is deforestation so important to climate change?

Can you think of a reason?

We will give you one hint: photosynthesis and carbon dioxide. Okay, two hints :) Trees absorb greenhouse gases that fuel global warming, fewer forests mean larger amounts of greenhouse gases entering the atmosphere which increases global warming (nationalgeographics.com). Deforestation is also causing a loss of much of the worlds biodiversity causing soil erosion and many animals and plants to become endangered and eventually extinct (worldwildlife.org). Erosion Amur Leopard Asian Elephant Plants (trees) convert carbon dioxide to oxygen during photosynthesis. This is a very important point to remember.

Now keep up with us to find out how deforestation contributes to climate change! Forests provide many benefits and services to society, including clean water, recreation, wildlife habitat, carbon storage, and products like paper and wood. A warmer climate will increase chances for drought which will affect the frequency and severity of wildfires, destroying even more of the world's forests.

Wildfires cause rapid, large releases of carbon dioxide to atmosphere. Industrialized society requires tremendous inputs of energy-to-power manufacturing process, transport of goods and people, heating and cooling buildings (Maxwell, 2009). This energy comes from FUEL. Fossil Fuels: coal, petroleum, and natural gas. They contain hydrocarbons and are non-renewable energy sources, which means once used, they are gone forever. Hydrocarbon compounds are composed of only hydrogen and carbon. Most hydrocarbons are combustible (Maxwell, 2009). Once ignited, these fuels release energy. Our favorite fuels are: Coal, oil, and natural gas. All of these contain hydrocarbons and are referred to as fossil fuels because they formed from decayed plants and animals laid down millions of years ago (Maxwell, 2009). Burning fossil fuels releases...

Carbon dioxide
Carbon monoxide
Nitrous oxide
Nitrogen dioxide
Nitric oxide
Sulfur dioxide

..into the atmosphere!

These are greenhouse gasses! Coal:

Large tracks of earth are removed to get the coal. Coal is shipped to a coal plant and burned to produce electricity. Burning the coal releases even more greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Clean coal: uses a process that captures the emissions of burning coal, converts them into carbon monoxide, hydrogen, and carbon dioxide. These emissions are then stored underground. (Wikipedia, 2013). NRDC defines "dirty fuels" as tar sands, oil shale, and liquid coal, all of which have devastating environmental impacts, and also cause more pollution and greenhouse gas emissions than conventional oil (NRDC, 2013). Crude oil must be pumped to earths surface and delivered to refineries by an extensive pipeline infrastructure (Maxwell, 2009). Coal Plant Coal Plant Coal Mining Coal Mining H Climate change poses a major challenge to the world because of the complexity of the role it plays in health, agriculture, and infectious disease. Health effects:

There are and will be many health effects associated with climate change.

Can you name some of the health effects climate change will bring? Agriculture:

Crops that are grown in areas where temperatures match their thresholds. As temperatures increase, crop production will decrease. Exposure to higher temperatures during pollination stage will reduce crop yields and eventually increase to total crop failure. Increasing temperatures will affect precipitation patterns and cause shifts in rainfall intensity that includes more extreme weather events increasing soil erosion. Heat: heat-related illnesses, cardiovascular failure.

Air quality: Asthma, cardiovascular disease, respiratory allergies.

Coastal flooding: Injuries, fatalities. Civil conflict: Forced migration, civil conflict.

Food & water: Malnutrition, diarrhea, algal blooms

Infectious disease: Dengue, Hantavirus, Cholera, Vector-borne diseases such as Malaria and Encephalitis Additional Resources More issues with climate change:

Water: Reduced availability of fresh water.

Mental health: Increase in depression other mental health issues.

Animal-borne diseases: Increase incident of Lyme disease.
What has been done and what is currently being done by government agencies or other organizations (NGOs) to reduce or eliminate climate change?

Follow us to find out! Kyoto Protocol States: countries agree to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 5.2% compared to the year 1990. What can the world do about Climate Change?

What can you do about Climate Change?

Save electricity by turning off TV and lights when not in the room.

Recycle: this saves energy to manufacture new products. Go solar: A solar system will provide hot water and can reduce your carbon emissions by 720 pounds a year (Houghton, 2007). Plant trees and protect the forests: they absorb large amounts of carbon dioxide.

Give your car a day off by riding a bike or walking. Develop renewable energy, such as wind, solar, and geothermal energy.

Continue to research new energy technologies, such as hydrogen fuel cell and biomass fuels. Most importantly, now that you have the knowledge, encourage others to learn about climate change, fossil fuels, and greenhouse gas emissions, and encourage them to take action! Please go to Climate Control Center to view excellent video clips of climate change, information, website links, and research materials.

Thank you for watching our Prezi.

-Micheal and Sandra Updated Information 30 minute video Climate Change Scientific History: Climate Change Scientific History: WOW! Temperature is increasing Glaciers are made up of fallen snow that, over many years, compresses into large, thickened ice masses.

Glaciers form when snow remains in one location long enough to transform into ice. Presently, glaciers occupy about 10% of the world's total land area, with most located in polar regions like Antarctica and Greenland (NSIDC, 2013). What makes glaciers unique is their ability to move. Due to sheer mass, glaciers flow like very slow rivers. Some glaciers are as small as football fields, while others grow to be over a hundred kilometers long.

Many people around the world rely on glaciers for safe drinking water. But they are melting as well! Reflects solar energy back into space Glacial Melt Receding Glacier A Forest Destroyed Carbon Dioxide Particulates 11 of the last 12 years (1995-2006) rank among the 12 warmest years (IPCC WGI, 4th Assessment).

Fossil fuels are a major contributor to the increase in carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and warming of the planet. References:

Cox,P., Betts, R.,Jones, C.,Spall, S. Acceleration of global warming due to carbon-cycle feedbacks
in a coupled climate model. Nature 408, 184-187.

Environmental Protection Agency, 2012. Retrieved from http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/science/future.html#Ice

Environmental Protection Agency, 2013. Retrieved from http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/impacts-adaptation/health.html

Facing the Future, 2013. Retrieved from http://www.facingthefuture.org

Guardian, 2012. Retrieved from http://guardian.co.uk/environment/2012/sep/14/arctic-sea-ice-smallest-extent

Maxwell, N. I. (2009). Understanding Environmental Health: How We Live In The World (Stg.). Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Hougton, D., 2007. Global Climate Change: Basics, Challenges, and International Impacts. Retrieved from http://www.rc.swls.org/www.old/talks/climatechange2007.pdf

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 2012. Retrieved from http://nasa.gov/mission_pages/Grace/news/grace20121129.html

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 2013. Retrieved from http://climate.nasa.gov/scientific-consensus

National Geographic, 2013. Retrieved from http://www.nationalgeographics.com

National Snow and Ice Data Center, 2013. Retrieved from http://www.nrdc.org/living/energy/what-are-dirty-fuels-qa-elizabeth-shope.asp

National Snow and Ice Data Center, 2013. Retrieved from http://nsidc.org/cryosphere/glaciers/questions/what.html\

Wikipedia, 2013. Retrieved from http://wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Kyoto_Protocol_signatories

World Wildlife Fund, 2013. Retrieved from http://www.worldwildlife.org http://climatekids.nasa.gov/
http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/ Not a good trend? ealth effects Please set this Prezi for 10 seconds. Controls can be found in lower right hand side of your screen. You can also use the arrows at the bottom of your screen. Dengue: is transmitted by several species of mosquito within the genus Aedes and is an infectious tropical disease caused by the dengue virus. Symptoms include fever, headache, muscle and joint pains, and a characteristic skin rash that is similar to measles. Cholera is an acute intestinal infection causing profuse watery diarrhea and vomiting. A person can get cholera by drinking water or eating food contaminated with the cholera bacterium. Oil pipelines in the US When fresh rodent urine, droppings, or nesting materials are stirred up, tiny droplets containing the Hantavirus get into the air. Hantavirus has a mortality rate of 38%. Malaria is a mosquito-borne disease caused by a parasite. People with malaria often experience fever, chills, and flu-like illness. Left untreated, they may develop severe complications and die. In 2010 an estimated 219 million cases of malaria occurred worldwide and 660,000 people died, most (91%) in the African Region (CDC, 2013).
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