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Egypt- Old Kingdom (2) Audio
Transcript of Egypt- Old Kingdom (2) Audio
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Model Funerary Complex of King Djoser, Third Dynasty 2750 BC
Step Pyramid of Zoser (Djoser)
It measures 140 x 118 meters ( 459 x 387 feet ) and it is 60m high or 197 ft.
Djoser’s Step Pyramid- built by IMHOTEP
He was the first to have conceived of using cut stone instead of mud bricks for building material.
Precinct wall around the Complex of Zoser at Saqqara
They are among the first monumental columnar forms in the history of architecture.
Entrance hall , colonade of King Zoser
This feature will remain central throughout the history of architecture : the imitation of natural forms
Façade imitating reed columns- South Building of Funerary Complex of King Zoser
Pyramid of Meidum( Onion pyramid)
Pyramid of Meidum( Onion pyramid)
Old Kingdom Pyramids
Although there were pyramids after the 4th Dynasty, the pyramid building impulse passed.
This was partly due to the gradual economic and political decline .
Pyramids grew smaller, were build of mud-brick and probably were no longer places were the people placed their dead king. One of the reasons for this was grave robbing.
One only has to see the treasures of Tutankhamen to understand this.
Decline of Pyramid building
The Step Pyramid at Saqquara
This Pyramid built by Snefru in the 4th Dynasty
notable for its bent shape, about halfway up, and the most intact casings of all the pyramids in Egypt.
The first true pyramid was developed for Pharaoh Snefru during the 4th Dynasty.
- It is referred to as the Red Pyramid, because of its color,
- It was about 105 meters high with its sides measuring 220 meters, constructed with a constant angle of 43 throughout.
- The passage towards the burial chambers is built ascending westward, as opposed to the conventionally descending northward direction of previous passages
The pyramid was not just a structural or formal device for the king.
It suggested a stairway to the sky which the pharaoh might ascend to join the sun god Amon-Ra, the chief god of Egypt at his time, in his daily journey across the heavens.
Architecture was not just functional, but also symbolic.
( important slide)
They used 52 degrees from the horizontal which resulted as structural failure at the Pyramid of Meidum whose outer layers were insufficiently supported and gave way to the immense internal pressures of stones
Pyramid at Meidum (2704-2656 BC)
Sometimes called the
The Meidum pyramid is a tower shaped structure some sixty-five meters from the 4th Dynasty,
- The initial building resembled a 7 stepped pyramid with a square base,
an enlargement took place during construction and the pyramid was converted to eight steps. finally the steps were filled in with packed stone and the whole structure was overlaid with a smooth casing.
- The pyramid collapsed in antiquity, and only the central core remain standing,
5 Miles south of Saqqara
The Bent Pyramid :This pyramid was probably built by Huni, the last king of the Third Dynasty and finished by his son Sneferu
was faced with
limestone, and is
- Nearby were the Mortuary temple, a Great Court and various other structures.
- Underneath Zoser's pyramid was a complex system of corridors with a burial chamber 28 meters underground
- architects: Huni, and Snefru was responsible for the completion of the Pyramid.
Make sure you can identify the
Pyramid at Saqquara
1.Analyze how religious beliefs were reflected in the architecture of ancient Egypt
2. Be able to relate a picture of an Egyptian architecture pyramids or mastabas to the Old Kingdom
3. Learn vocabulary related to the architecture and culture of Egypt