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Principles of Typography
Transcript of Principles of Typography
After completing this presentation and the assigned activities related to this chapter, you will be able to do the following:
Summarize the basic functions and goals of typography
Distinguish the differences among typefaces, fonts, families, and series
Identify and explain basic letter and typeface elements
List and identify the basic typeface classifications
Use the point system to measure point size and determine the actual height of typeset characters
Distinguish between text type and display type
Define leading and indicate its purpose
Explain the differences and applications of various digital fonts
Differentiate among the various typesetting formats
Select and use typefaces with the most effective physical characteristics for a specific printed piece
Type and Typography
Graphic designers are in the business of making decisions - decisions regarding the size and shape of the printed piece, the ink colors and paper finish; the selection, cropping, and placement of photographs; and more.
The most critical design decisions revolve around the selection and use of type.
The mishandling of type can ruin a design. In contrast, the proper handling of type can create striking images that communicate both words and appropriate mood.
There are thousands of different typefaces and new ones are continually created. The more that beginning designers understand about type and typography the more effective they will be able to use these powerful graphic elements.
Good vs. Bad
Type is the characters, figures and punctuations marks used in printed messages.
Typography is the selection and arrangement of type in the design.
Typography has two basic functions: first is to convey a message concisely, quickly, and with little effort from the reader, and the second is to enhance the mood or feel of the design.
Legibility measures the ease and speed with which short phrases can be read accurately.
For large type in advertisement posters, book titles, and signage, legibility is critical.
Legibility vs. Readability
Readability measures the ability of a large body of type to be read without tiring the readers eyes.
Type that is legible in small amounts might not be very readable when set in long lengths.
Typefaces is a specific style with its own combination of design features such as shape, stroke, and weight, which distinguish one typeface from another.
Typefaces, Fonts, Families, and Series
Type fonts is a complete alphabet in a particular typeface and point size.
A type family is a collection of a typeface and its variations, based on weight (light or bold), structure (condensed or expanded), and stress (italic or roman).
A type series is the range of sizes available for a specific typeface in a specific type family.
Typefaces vary in several ways. An important consideration in type selection is a typeface's use of proportion, the design element revolving around size relationships.
Type Design Options
Closed Counter Area
Even though there are thousands of typefaces, they are all grouped into five classifications (or races): Serif, Square Serif, Sans Serif, Script and Cursive, and Decorative.
Serif typefaces are named for the flared extensions at the end of their strokes, called serifs.
Another name for this classification is Roman, the ancient civilization that created the serif.
Serifs improve readability in two ways. First it extends outward creating a subtle linkage between the characters of a work and helps the horizontal path of the eye. Second, serifs help to distinguish characters that otherwise share similar design elements.
Serif, or Roman, Typefaces
Square-Serif typefaces are geometric in design, and their appearance is a sharp rejection of the classic Roman typefaces.
Square-serif characters have square, or blocks, serifs and comparatively uniform strokes.
Square-serif typefaces reflect more boldness than elegance. Therefore, they are used in display lines to impart a sense of rugged strength or Old west. They are commonly used for athletic team logos.
San serif typefaces are with no serifs at all.
These typefaces have little to no stroke difference at all.
San Serif Typefaces
Script and cursive typefaces are intended to represent handwriting. Script typefaces are designed so adjoining characters will actually touch. The characters of cursive typefaces do not join.
Both scripts and cursives contain thin and thick strokes.
Script and cursive typefaces should never be set in all uppercase letters or letterspaced because of the awkward character combinations are difficult to read.
Script and Cursive Typefaces
Decorative typefaces classification consists of those typefaces that do not fit any other classification.
Novelty, occasional, and miscellaneous typefaces are other terms used to describe this highly diverse classification that includes ornamental and greatly exaggerated designs, along with typefaces appropriate only to convey a very specialized mood.
These typefaces are commonly used in logos and other advertising applications.
Type Size and Measurement
In the world of metal type, the type size is the height of the piece of metal holding the letter. The letter itself occupies only a portion of this metal piece. Therefore, an uppercase R set in 24 points will not actually be 24 points.
Text type or body type is type sizes that are 12 points and smaller. These are usually used for newspapers and books.
Display type are typefaces that are 14 points or larger. These are usually used for headlines and subheadings.
Inserting additional spaces between lines of type is called leading or line spacing. The purpose of leading is to make type matter easier to read by separating the lines.
One way typefaces vary in their design is the proportion of the x-height to the type size.
Therefore, typefaces with large x-heights, such as Helvetica, are especially well suited for highway signs and other applications requiring that they are legible from significant distances.
At the same time, typefaces with small x-heights can work well in long bodies of copy because the extra white space above and below the letters with neither ascenders or descenders will cause lines to appear farther apart.
Ems and Ens
In the days of metal type, pieces of metal that carried no images occupied the spaces between words.
The basic spacer occupied a square and was called an em quad. Em quads were as high as the type size being used, and being a square, were the same width.
An en quad is half the width of an em quad. Em spaces are even narrower and are typically used as word spacing. Word spacing is the spacing between words.
The Unit System
All typesetting methods are based on a counting system specifying type sizes and spacing.
Type designers use a universal unit system to determine character width and spacing. In the unit system, the em is broken into 54 units, and each character's width is measured in unties, with wide letters such and M and W consisting of more units than narrow letters such as R and I.
Letterspacing is the spacing placed between individual characters.
Kerning is the term for the process of manually adjusting the space between certain character pairs.
Type Size and Measurement
Patents and Licenses
Patents and Licenses
Patents and licenses protect a number of typefaces.
Digital fonts are software and are subject to strict licensing agreements.
Traditionally copyright law did not protect typefaces. However, in 1922 the U.S. Copyright Office suggested that computer programs generating typefaces can obtain copyright protection.
One early breakthrough in computerized typeface technology was Apple's TrueType font Technology, fully scalable fonts operating form a single file format, as opposed to the older format, where both printer and screen font files were needed.
Postscript technology is a page description language (PDL) that Adobe Systems, Inc. invented. A PDL consists of software commands that , when translated through a special device, form the desired image on the output device.
Typefaces represented and stored as digitized electronic data are referred to as digital fonts. Digital fonts exist in bitmaps or outlines.
A bitmap font is a set of typographic characters existing as a collection of pixels.
A vector font (outline) generates type characters and symbols from mathematical formulas corresponding to the curves and lines of characters, as opposed to collection of dots.
The flush left/ragged right format has the type aligned evenly on the left side of the column and ragged on the right side.
A typesetting format refers to any one of several ways in which type can be displayed on the printed page.
The flush right/ragged left format has the type aligned evenly on the right side of the column and ragged on the left side.
The centered format has the type centered on the page or column, resulting in uneven line lengths.
The justified format, lines are aligned on both the left and right edges of a column or page.
To avoid excessive typographic gimmicks, several factors that must be carefully considered when selecting and using typefaces for a printed piece include:
Typeface Selection Consideration
Design novices typically select too many features for effective communication because desktop publishing programs are loaded with several fonts and design capabilities.
The runaround format (also called wraparound format) flows around the contour of illustrations and logos.
Generally, highly readable typefaces were designed to be used as text, and others were intended as display types, such as headlines.
In the case of decorative typefaces, the type designers might or might not have had legibility in mind when they created the characters, so judgement is necessary to ensure a design does not fail because of inappropriate type.
Legibility refers to the speed at which the reader can identify type characters and the ease with which the display type can be read.
Typeface Selection Consideration
The intended message and audience determine the appropriateness of a typeface for a particular printed piece. A particular typeface can suggest characteristics such as ruggedness, femininity, masculinity, formality, or pure fun.
Poor word spacing can reduce readability. Typefaces with high levels of readability can be read in long bodies of text type without tiring the reader. Lines with narrow word spacing appear to run together and are difficult to read, whereas excessive word spacing makes the lines appear choppy.
Reverse type refers to type that drops out of the background and assumes the color of the paper. This technique is commonly used to add contrast, gain the reader's attention, and stress the importance of the message.
Maintain design harmony by using just enough typographic changes.
Most documents need from two to three typefaces to guide the reader and aid comprehension.
Combining two sans serif or two serif typefaces is confusing to the reader because they appear similar, but not identical. Only very different designs should be combined on a page. Typefaces similar in design hardly work well together.
Strong contrast are usually not a problem
Making information clearer, improving visual relationships, and creating contrast are valid reasons for combining typefaces.
Stay within a typeface family.
The bigger the design contrast is, the better the mix will be.
Mixing two very different designs from the serif type category can create a pleasing effect. (old style serif with square serif)
Electronically distorting or modifying a typeface is seldom a good idea.
Too many typefaces or typefaces that do not combine well can hinder communication. Keep the following points in mind when selecting typefaces:
Regardless of how attractive or "correct" a layout is, typographical errors will distract the reader from the message and hurt the piece's credibility.
Proofreading is the process of checking for typesetting errors and marking them for correction.
Proofreading can be performed by one person or two people. One-person proofing is used primarily to find major problems such as copy omission, incorrect sequence, or copy duplication. Two-person proofing uses a reader and a marker and is the best proofreading method when accuracy and speed are important.
Proofreader marks are the symbols used to show when something is to be deleted, added, or changed.