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History - Western Europe in the 1500's
Transcript of History - Western Europe in the 1500's
before 1500, and through the 15th century. - Columbus' discovery of India began Europe's expansion overseas. - The Medici family, which controlled a large part of Italy's bank system sponsored travel -Technology enhanced mines, giving more precious metals, iron casting created new weapons for trade. - Printing became more efficient, increasing ink and paper trades and more books to be sold, mostly the bible, spreading religion. - Alloys started being made, making better quality metals. Western Europe Ellison
Steven INTRODUCTION Western Europe was very dominant during the 1450's to the 1550's. Western Europe consisted of many civilizations, some of which are England, Germany, and France. It was a civilization not to be reckoned with and feared by other Empires and civilizations. Western Europe was the most fit to rule the world during the 1500's due to its science and technology, economics, and other effecting factors. The Islamic World's Economy -Relied too much on the silver trades, which started to decline. Arts and Literature The arts and literature in Western Europe during the 1500's also had an effect on Europe's power. In the 12th century, Europe was in turmoil and instability as it witnessed a constant change of power from the Holy Roman Empire to the French Monarchy and afterwards the plague haunted Europe as it killed one third of its population. It was a world filled with uncertainty and fear where survival was the primary priority and thought of creativity in such times is next to impossible. Then came the “Renaissance” which refers to the time where all the chaos and disorder settled down and Europe started to flourish and become prosperous. With the advent of new technology and introduction of the printing press, the literature was able to reach a larger audience and allowed writers such as William Shakespeare to expose his brilliance to the world and inspire generations. This period also introduced arguably three of the best artist the world has ever seen, Leonardo da Vinci, Michaelangelo Buonarroti and Raphael Sanzio. These three left an imprint on society with their paintings and sculptures. The Mona Lisa by Leonardo da Vinci 'David' by Michaelangelo Sistine Chapel's ceiling done by Michaelangelo -Had no major backup or advanced technology to keep economy up Government and Law
in Western Europe Feudalism is a political system where the kings signs land (fiefs) over to his nobles in return for their loyalty to him.
The nobles received protection, and in return, provided the king with military service.
The nobles (or vassals) granted fiefs to others as well, gaining vassals of their own, making them lords. They still remained vassals of the king though.
They promised never to fight against the king, and to give him whatever he asked for, such as money, advice, or men for battle Feudalism provided a way to settle disputes and military protection.
Military service was the most important duty of vassal to their lord
- Barony -> forced military service duties (greater barons were guaranteed attendance at parliament)
- Knight Service -> same as barony, but to a lesser extent
- Castle guard -> guarded a nearby castle for a number of days per year
- Scutage -> replacing military service obligations with money payments
Vassals would also have to attend their lord's trials in court
The vassal would serve as a knight to their lord for about 40 to 60 days a year
In the absence of war, the knight would train for 40 days at the castle The vassal’s source of income would be from their lord in exchange for their services.
The size of the fief varied according to the income it could provide.
Fiefs were normally intended to be sufficient enough to ensure the vassal’s knight service. This method of government brought stability.
Serfs provided essential goods and services, while their lords provided protection.
Everyone was included.
The rich could keep and expand their land.
The poor could farm land they did not own.
It meant constant work for some, but it gave everyone a chance for survival . <- Grants Land To... Provide Protection & Military Service Provide Money & Knights Provide Food and Services when demanded -> -> -> Values and Religious Beliefs
in Western Europe The Catholic church helped Europe's economy significantly. The churches were extremely rich by making money off of the large ares of land that they owned. People who worked on their land had to pay tithes (a tenth of their crops or their yearly salary had to go to the church) The people would pay money for indulgences, and buy relics (straw, hay, feathers, pieces of the cross…etc. things that were said to be closest to Jesus when he was on earth). They bought the relics because they thought it pleased God.
All of this money went straight to the Vatican . The church told people that if they wanted to spend a short time in purgatory (the place where go when you die before heaven to burn off your sins) they should go on a pilgrimage (you went to a place of worship that was owned by the church, they made money off of badges and holy water), buy indulgences, and attend church and live a good life.
This showed the amount of influence that the church had over the people . During the reformation and counter-reformation Catholics and protestants found the energy to spread the word of the lord around the world.
Christianity had worked its way to parts of Asia. The church had been built up over centuries and required superstition.
People believed that the only was to get to heaven was via the church and this gave priest enormous power over the local people.
People would do what the priest told them to if it would increase their chances of getting into heaven. The church was not controlled by a king. This meant that the church could do whatever they wanted.
Also, churchmen that committed a crime were not tried in a normal court but tried by other churchmen who were often very lenient. Technology in Western Europe The printing press was invented by Johannes Gutenberg in the 1400s. The invention of the printing press influenced a lot of people because it was able to spread news and opinions of many different people. Most of the earliest books dealt with religious subjects, students, businessmen, and class.
Also, the Bible was being mass produced . -The printing press led to trade
- Demand for books grew -Able to spread information, share opinions, and make money
-Stronger economy and a more literate populace Science in Western Europe Andreas Vesalius was an anatomist, born on December 31, 1514 in Brussels, Belgium.
He is mainly known for his publication of books which influenced the way the human body was looked upon throughout Europe. Vesalius’s most known accomplishment was the book he wrote, called ‘De Humani Corporis Fabrica’, which was eventually published on 1543. His discoveries led to a much clearer look on human anatomy.
Doctors and surgeons gained immense knowledge on how to operate on their patients, which led to better operations and more lives saved. ‘De Humani Corporis Fabrica’ also corrected statements many thought were true.
One example was that the jaw bone was made up of more than one bone. Vesalius proved that this was false due to his numerous dissections on human bodies. Vesalius also wrote a letter about venipuncture and bloodletting.
The points he proved by means of anatomical diagrams helped many doctors treat almost any illness much easier and quicker. Surgery benefited by a great deal because of the amount of information about the muscular system, skeletal system, and the vascular and circulatory system. The world of Western Europe during the 1500s was a very prosperous era.
-Science and technology were improving by the week
-The Catholic churches continued to hold power over the people
-Arts and literature provided benefits and a sense of relaxation
-The laws and government kept Europe in order
-And the economy kept Europe alive and healthy The scientific revolution was an important event that further advanced Europe's power. Biology, physics, chemistry, math, astronomy, and medicine changed dramatically as new discoveries were discovered and new findings were found. Andreas Vesalius's publication of De Humani Corporis Fabrica is one of the events that mark the starting point of the revolution.