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Rhetoric of the Image
Transcript of Rhetoric of the Image
*Connotation- commonly understood subjective cultural or emotional association that some word or phrase carries
*Signified- the meaning or idea expressed by a sign, as distinct from the physical form in which it is expressed.
*Signifier- a sign's physical form (such as a sound, printed word, or image) as distinct from its meaning. Introduction *The signification of the image in advertising is intentional
*The meanings have to be transmitted as clear as possible
*In Advertising, the literal message is never at a pure stage Studying Advertising Coded iconic message Three Messages What's denoted and connoted in these images? Conclusion Roland Barthes Definitions Image- from the roots "Imitari"- Imitate Issues How does meaning get into an image? What's the Linguistic nature of an image? If the image re-presents, can it shape meaning? Can the image limit the meaning? Four Signs of Images 1) They form a coherent whole
2) They require a generally cultural knowledge
3) They refer back to signifieds each of which is global Elements of the Ad The name and Image are associated with Italiancity Meaning is twofold:
Denotational and Connotational Signifier (Graphic Sign) Half open bag- Spill out over the table
Bringing together the colors that represent the Italian Flag Signified (Meaning) Return from a home market
Freshness of products
Domestic preparation A French would perceive these signs much easier than an Italian, based on familiarity with certain tourist stereotype
The composition of the image represents ‘nature morte’ or still life- but the knowledge of this sign is purely cultural
It lets us know it's an advertising either by the pace located (magazine), or the label
In advertising, the image is purely functional- to utter something is not to declare “I am speaking” Signified-
-Yellow Stars- Jews
-Silhouettes and not actual people What do you see? Cultural Knowledge? Linguistic Message - Need cultural knowledge (language) to decode text
- Connotates "Italianicity" through the sound and familiarity of this particular text -To study images without words we have to go back to illiterate societies
-Does the image duplicate certain of the information of the text or does the text add a fresh information to the image?
-Today, in mass communications, the linguistic message is presented in every image (title, caption, dialogue, etc) Functions of the Linguistic Message Anchorage Relay 1.The denominative function corresponds exactly to an anchorage of all the possible (denoted) meanings of the object by recourse to a nomenclature, a name.
2.It helps me choose the correct level of perception
3.Permits me to focus, not simply my gaze but my understanding
4.With the symbolic message it doesn’t provide only identification but rather interpretation
5.Text directs the reader through the signifieds of the images causing him to avoid some and received other, it remote-controls him towards a meaning in advance.
6.Anchorage is a control and thus has a “repressive” value
7.Commonly found in photos and adverts 1.The relay-text becomes very important in film where dialogue functions not simply as elucidation but really does advance the action by setting out in the sequence of messages meaning that are not to be found in the image itself (not common to the fixed image) it is complementary to the image and advances the narrative - Text in a complementary to the image.
- Text provides meaning not found in the image.
- For quick reading, text illustrated with image.
- Text and images are both fragments. Non- Coded iconic message The coded iconic message is the totality of all of the messages that are connoted by the image itself The noncoded iconic message is simply the literal "what it is" of the photograph Literal Message -If all the signs are removed from the image, we are still left with some informational matter, you associate and identify.
-This meaning is represented by the real objects of the scene
-What defines it is the relationship between signified and signifier
-The sign of this message is not drawn an institutional stock, its not coded 1915- 1980
French literary theorist, philosopher, and critic He influenced every field concerned with the representation of information and models of communication, including computers, photography, music, and literature. Coded: Heat, melting, refreshing Non Coded: Man, Drinks, Tennis The Photograph A message without a code? The photograph seems to constitute a message without a code Only photograph can transmit literal information without forming means of discontinuous signs and rules of transformation Drawings, as opposed to the photograph, even when denoted, have a coded message The Drawing doesn't reproduce everything It requires apprenticeship The photograph on the other hand, cannot intervene within the object In photograph, the relationship of signified to signifiers is not one of transformations but of Recording! The Drawing requires a set of rule-governed transpositions The scene is captures mechanically, not humanly Images are everything.
"A picture is worth a thousand words"
Images are a clear way to deliver a message, immortalize moments, save memories, and delight the senses.
Images can also be a copy of reality that hides a meaning, with or without intention. Non-Coded