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History of Tourism and Hospitality

When a Pharaoh, a Roman and a Monk…

Kevin O'Gorman

on 26 January 2017

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Transcript of History of Tourism and Hospitality

Clustering of Caravanserais in Esfahan Iran
Built Environment As Text
The built environment is used as a text by reflecting and analysing the cityscape; the cityscape is “a story people tell themselves about themselves.” Geertz (1977: 448)
Historical Architecture
Social Architecture
Identify the architect, analyze the work, and put the architect's work into the larger context of his time and region
The built environment reflects the social system of the time and the ways in which that system is expressed, reproduced, and experienced and therefore reflects the structure of urban life
Hospitality Codes
The person providing the service is seen by the guest as representing the business as a whole
Personal characterises of staff must be genuinely disposed to providing service
There is a need for specialised staff as well as multi-skilled staff
Staff roles should be clearly defined to indicated which staff interact with guests and how
The level of staffing needs to match the business demand
Staff should maintain their dignity in providing service: service not servility
Staff must not cause the guests unnecessary disturbance
When providing service the management and staff are separate from the society that they are providing service to

The level of service offered is determined by the type of the business

Businesses have a responsibility for the health, safety and security of the guests

Management and staff should display personal integrity and be practically competent

The business, its management and staff must maintain a professional relationship with guests at all times

Business Principles
Translation Issues
A Monk...
A Roman...
A Pharaoh...
The Silk Route...
Detail from
“The judgement of the dead in the presence of Osiris”

Thebes, Egypt 19th Dynasty
1275 BC

Prayer before Osiris
“I have pleased the gods by doing his will, I have given food to the hungry, water to the thirsty, clothes to the naked and safety to those who needed it”
Pompeii 79AD
Archaeological Sites

“search for him in some big bar. There he will be, lying next a cut-throat, in the company of sailors, thieves, and runaway slaves, beside hangmen and coffin-makers, or beside a passed out priest:

This is liberty hall,
one cup serves for all,
no one has a bed to himself,
nor a table apart from the rest.”
(Juvenal, Satires 8:168f)
Monastic Staffing
of Hospitality
Honourable Tradition
The concepts of guest, stranger, and host are closely related
Hospitality is seen as essentially organic, revealing much about the cultural values and beliefs of the societies
Reciprocity of hospitality is an established principle
Providing hospitality is paying homage to the gods – a worthy and honourable thing to do – and failure is condemned in both the human and spiritual worlds

Fundamental to Human Existence
Hospitality includes food, drink and accommodation and also is concerned with the approach to be adopted, e.g. welcoming, respectful and genuine
Hospitality is offered and the extent or limitation of it is based on the needs and the purpose of the guests/strangers
Alliances are initially developed through hospitality between friends, households and states, and are strengthened through continuing mutual hospitality
Hospitality once granted between individuals, households and states is also granted to descendants and through extended friendships

Developments in the societies lead to the formal stratification of hospitality: the codification of hospitality being based on whether it was private, civic or business, and on the needs and purpose of the guest/stranger, and their nature or status
Reciprocity of hospitality becomes legally defined
Civic and business hospitality develops from private hospitality but retains the key foundations – treat others as if in their own home
Hospitality management, in the civic and business sense, is established as being centred on persons responsible for formal hospitality, and also for the protection of the guest/stranger and ensuring their proper conduct.
Places of hospitality were initially differentiated primarily by the existence, or not, of overnight accommodation
Individual places of hospitality either offer associated services, or are located near other places of hospitality
Originally places of hospitality are for the lower classes that did not have established networks of hospitality enjoyed by the higher classes
Increasing travelling amongst the higher classes created demands for superior levels of places of hospitality
Central to Human Endeavour
Hospitality is a vital and integral part of the societies
Shared hospitality is a principal feature in the development and continuation of friendships and alliances between persons, between communities, and between nations
Hospitality is the focus for the celebrations of significant private, civic and business events and achievements throughout life
Hospitality is also foreseen as a principal feature until the end of time

…a bit about me and my teaching philosophy

But before all that…

“If then a practical end must be assigned to a University course, I say it is that of training good members of society... It is the education which gives someone a clear, conscious view of their own opinions and judgements, a truth in developing them, an eloquence in expressing them, and a force in urging them. It teaches a person to see things as they are, to go right to the point, to disentangle a skein of thought to detect what is sophistical and to discard what is irrelevant.”
John Henry Newman

The Idea of a University

“Your work is going to fill a large part of your life, and the only way to be truly satisfied is to...love what you do. Your time is limited. Don't waste it living someone else's life”
Steve Jobs

“The universities are schools of education and schools of research. But the primary reason for their existence is not to be found either in the mere knowledge conveyed to the students or in the mere opportunities for research afforded to the members of the faculty… The justification for a university is that it preserves the connection between knowledge and the zest for life, by uniting the young and the old in the imaginative consideration of learning”
Alfred North Whitehead

Establish inns in your lands so that whenever a Muslim passes by, you will put him up for a day and a night and take care of his animals; if he is sick, provide him with hospitality for two days and two nights; and if he has used up all of his provisions and is unable to continue, supply him with whatever he needs to reach his hometown.

Samarkand, Uzbekistan 719A.D.
They policed and devoted themselves to safety and well-being in Jerusalem. Without them it would have been potentially impossible for this area, perceived as the centre of the world in medieval times
Duties from caring for the sick and homeless in Jerusalem, to protecting pilgrims on the roads, shipping them from the ports of their own home nations.
Ensured the safe arrival of persons but also their money.
Financial versatility of their banks made pilgrimages a possibility for some who otherwise couldn’t have afforded it and their protection and modes of transport.
Knights Templar
Pauperes Commilitones Christi
Modern conventions on the Templars:
Da Vinci Code (Brown, 2003)
Indiana Jones Quartet
Assassins Creed
Ivanhoe (Scott, 1995)

Mass movement of pilgrims and merchants from all over Europe
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