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Kingdom Monera: BACTERIA
Transcript of Kingdom Monera: BACTERIA
Interactions with Organisms
Bacteria are organisms that exist everywhere, and have the greatest population of all organisms on earth. Due to this they are constantly interacting with every organism on earth. Scientists are studying bacteria to better understand both them and every organism on earth. Bacteria can either live in a postitive, negative, or neutral relationship with other organisms.
Effects on Humans
There are four phylums in the Kingdom Monera:
Members of this phylum are some of the oldest bacteria and are adapted to extremely harsh environments. Different types of this bacteria are adapted to live in very acidic areas, areas with high salt concentration, and places with extremely high temperatures.
Bacteria come in three shapes:
Bacteria that cluster together are described with the prefix: Staphylo
Bacteria that from filaments are described with the prefix: Strepto
This is the largest phylum in the Kingdom Monera. This phylum contains four classes:
Gram stains are commonly used on members of this phylum.
Members of this phylum gained their name from their blue-green colour and are similar in traits to plants and other similar organisms. One similarity is that they are photosythetic and use water during this process also producing oxygen. An interesting characteristic is that they are encased in a jellylike substance and lump together in colonies in many cases. Often the cells in the colony will all have specific roles. A rapid growth of these bacteria is called a bloom.
Members of this phylum are photosynthetic. The photosynthetic pigments that these bacteria contain are more similar to chloroplasts than to the pigments in blue-green bacteria. They live with an organism commonly known as a sea squirt (tunicates) in a symbiotic relationship.
Bacteria can be harmful by causing disease. These diseases are caused by the toxins (poisonous substances) formed by the bacteria. Some bacterias produce endotoxins causing a multitude of symptoms. Exotoxins can also be produced as products of the metabolism of some bacteria. Exotoxins are incredibly lethal. Bacteria that used to be easily manageable can become resistant to the antibiotics once used on them making them more dangerous.
Monerans (bacteria) are found everywhere and in great numbers. They are all prokaryotic, meaning that a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles are not present. Monerans are also extremely tiny (microscopic) and therefore can not be seen individually with the naked eye. To view bacteria it must be grown in a culture.
The basic structure of a moneran involves a mass of floating organelles surrounded by a cell wall. The nucleoid region holds the DNA within the cytoplasm. Also found in the cytoplasm are plasmids (small strands of DNA that can replicate independently) and ribosomes. The cell walls of bacteria can either be ridgid or flexible depending on the bacteria in question. Often capsules (protective layers around the cell wall consisting of polysaccharides [complex carbohydrates composed of multiple six-carbon sugars called monosaccharides]) and a glycocalyx (a net of polysaccharides used to help them stick to their surroundings) will be grown by the moneran. Other monerans use protein strands called pili to attach to objects. Monerans that move will often either use flagella (a tail like attachment to the outside of the moneran) or filaments that are wrapped around the cell in order to travel.
: Monerans who find themselves in difficult to survive conditions sometimes encase their DNA and some of their cytoplasm in a structure called an endospore. When the time is right this structure will break open and the cell becomes active.
Monerans either use food produced by other organisms (heterotrophic) or produce thier own food (autotrophic).
Saprophytes are a type of heterotrophs that feed off of dead organisms releasing elements such as carbon which are then used by other organisms.
Photoautotrophs are a type of autotroph that uses sunlight as a source of energy.
Chemoauthotrophs are a type of autotroph that use the energy of chemical reactions to gain energy. Some chemoautotrophs also convert notrogen gas into ammonia in a process called nitrogen fixation.
Monerans can be obligate anaerobes (they cannot survive in oxygen), obligate aerobes (they cannot survive without oxygen), or facultative anaerobes (they can live with or without oxygen).
Monerans, under ideal conditions can reproduce very rapidly. They can do so through binary fission, in which a cell replicates its DNA and splits creating two identical cells. Sometimes monerans exchange DNA in a process called conjugation.
Class Eubacteria is the most extensive and most well-known. They live in relatively mild environments such as soil and water.
Class Actinomycota often decompose dead organisms or cause disease. Many are also sources of antibiotics.
Class Rickettsiae can only reproduce within certain host cells. These bacteria are commonly transferred from insects to mammals.
Class Spirochaeta are spiral or curved bacteria that use flagella to move in most cases. They are also disease causing.
Bacteria can be beneficial in many way. Some bacteria are nitrogen fixing, others produce oxygen through photosynthesis, others provide us with antibiotics (chemicals capable of inhibiting the growth of some bacterias) to fight other bacteria with, and others, such as ones within the human body, can help with body functions. For example, bacteria found in the human digestive tract help to break down and digest food. Bacteria also give us a look into the history of the development of life.
Some bacteria live symbiotically (neutrally) with organisms. They neither help or harm and just coexist with the other organism.
Species: Halobacterium salinarum
Some harmful bacteria can cause diseases. Some examples of these are Escherichia coli and salmonella causing food poisoning, helicobacter pylori causing gastritis and ulcers, and Neisseria meningitidis causing meningitis.
This bacteria is a rod-shaped, motile (using flagella), bacteria that lives in highly saline (salty) environments. When this bacteria grows in mass cultures it has a distinct red colouring. It is a phytosythetic bacteria that can sense oxygen being an obligate aerobe. It's main energy source is amino acids. Due to the environment it lives in, it does not live with other organisms. It also causes no human diseases because it does not interact with humans. An interesting fact is that they do not have a cell wall. It reproduces using binary fission.
Species: Clostridum Tetani
This bacteria is a disease causing bacteria, with its toxins causing tetanus. It is an anaerobic, mobile (using flagella), rod-shaped bacterium. The shape of its colonies are often related to the shape of a tennis racket net as it grows in clusters. This bacteria lives amongst other organisms, in the intestines of animals, and causing illness in humans and some animals. It reproduces using binary fission. These bacteria use the process of fermentation to feed themselves. This process provides them with a number of acids that provide nutrition.
Species: Anabaena circinalis
This bacteria is a photosynthetic bacteria that lives in freshwater environments. These round shaped bacteria form filaments with certain cells in the filament having particular roles. Binary fission is used by these bacteria. When conditions are ideal this bacteria forms large blooms causing damage to plants and animals in the nearby area. When a human drinks water contaminated with this bacteria symptoms can range from an irritation to death. This bacteria is not a motile bacteria.
Species: Prochloron didemni
This bacteria is a circular bacteria that grows in colonies and is photosynthetic and an obligate aerobe. An interesting fact is that their photosynthetic process is close to eukaryotic plants. These bacteria use binary fission to reproduce. Another interesting fact to note is that it is an oblicate symbiont (it requires a symbiotic relationship with
to survive). These two exchange nitrogen and
protects this bacteria by deterring animals from feeding on it. It is found within other organisms and is a nuisance to humans. This bacteria is not motile.