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Rebecca Padayhag

on 31 August 2011

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Transcript of Copy of SHOP AND SAFE

Top - down -> listeners' background knowledge of the non-linguistic context and working down towards individual sound, or the 'inside head' information or also known as "schematic knowledge". (cc) photo by Metro Centric on Flickr (cc) photo by Franco Folini on Flickr (cc) photo by jimmyharris on Flickr (cc) photo by Metro Centric on Flickr 1. Oracy – the ability to express oneself in and understand spoken language
2. Comprehension – to understand the nature or meaning of.
3. Input – means that student should be able to understand the essence of what is being said or presented to them. 4. Contextual clues, the content, and the setting.

5 .Schematic knowledge and knowledge of scripts

6.Match perception with the speaker’s intended meaning
For example:
Shopkeeper: how long are you here?
Visitor: ‘til Tuesday.
Shopkeeper: no, what time did you arrive? Example: Margaret: Where are you working?

John: In a local firm. They make parts for the motor industry, you know,..crankshafts, crankrods, connecting rods and so on…Reynolds Supply Company. They’re very good. They started me off in the model shop. More clues to help us infer meanings: LISTENING This strategy comes from the work of researchers:

1. Psycholinguist

2. Communication Researchers

3. Psychologists This strategy comes from the work of researchers: (cc) photo by Metro Centric on Flickr (cc) photo by Franco Folini on Flickr (cc) photo by jimmyharris on Flickr (cc) photo by Metro Centric on Flickr UNCERTAINTIES (cc) photo by Franco Folini on Flickr Clues that help us infer the meaning: Listening is reciprocal or participatory. Visual Uncertainties What is the role of listening in the English language curriculum? Types of listening processes: Bottom –> up listeners decode the smallest elements of what they hear – sounds, until they reach the non-linguistic context. 1. .Placement of stress on the meaningful words, and the use of non-verbal behavior.
For example: Divorce is not the medicine for intolerable marriages. 2.Lexical knowledge and logical reasoning.
For example: hurricane….coast….Florida…damaged property…families homeless 3. Syntactic structure Categories of schemata:

Formal : overall knowledge of some speech events.

Context : general world knowledge, sociocultural and topic knowledge.

Script : a term used by Schank, to describe how the routines are stored in the memory Purpose of Listening: Example:
Small talk at an informal gathering. Main purpose:
To get the information needed to do something specific. Brown and Yule used the terms INTERACTIONAL and TRANSACTIONAL Cherry (1957) introduces the term
UNCERTAINTIES and goes on to categorize some of its major areas. Uncertainties of Confidence Learners have unrealistic expectations and try to understand each word of a listening contex. Uncertainties deriving from the Presentation of Speech Unplanned and unrehearsed spoken language is different from the language of written texts. Uncertainties beceause of the gaps of the message Where prediction is widely used
as a strategy . Uncertain Strategies Listeners used strategies to maintain the flow of communication. Uncertainties of Content Bakcground knowledge is required to make sense of a text. It is important when the auditory input is of poor quality.
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