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Chapter 6: Earthquakes

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Aryn Press

on 25 February 2014

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Transcript of Chapter 6: Earthquakes

Lesson 2:
Earthquakes and Seismic Waves
Seismographs
measure how powerful an Earthquake is
The machine to measure a seismic wave is called a
seismogram
Earthquakes are measured on a scale of 1-10 but in 2004 an Earthquake was measured to be a 9.0 (thats really big!)
There are 3 seismic waves and they help measure Earthquakes *S-waves and P-waves*
Earthquakes are measured on a seismogram by amplitude, height, and ground motion
most seismologists use a moment magnitude scale and measure Earthquakes by the amount of energy released
Chapter 6 lesson 4:Eartquake Hazards and Saftey
Articles
These articles show what happened in different Earthquakes throughout the years
Result of Earthquakes
.
Chapter Six: Earthquakes
Seismic Waves are are waves of energy produced at the focus of an Earthquake
Seismic waves start at Earth's epicenter, which is the point directly above the earthquake's focus.
There are different types of seismic waves. There are Primary waves (P-waves), Seconday (S-waves), and surface waves
Chapter 6 Lesson 3: Measuring Earthquakes
Fire is the most hazardous and the most common after an earthquake.
Another common hazard after or during earthquakes are landslides.
Liquefaction is also dangerous because it makes loose sediment shake which causes it to act like liquid.
Made by Aryn, Nikita, Ethan, and Kendall
Chapter 6 Lesson 1:
Earthquakes and Plate Boudaries
Recording Seismic Waves & Mechanical Seismographs & Magnitude Scale
Earthquake Intensity & Effects of Shaking & Plotting Intensity Values
Earthquakes Hazards and Safety
G
G
GUYS
Tsunamis
Data can also be based on how much damage the Earthquake can cause
Earthquakes depend on the epicenter and local geology
The most intensity is found near the epicenter, the farther away the less effect
Sediment and rocks also have a big effect, but sediment tends to shake more because it is loose and breaks easily
Scientists plot the data on a map called a topographic map
Tsunamis are caused by earthquakes.
First, the earthquakes move the plate and a small wave forms.
Second, the wave height grows higherthe more distance it travels.
Then, wave height increases rapidly near the shore.
Finally, the tsunami wave surges over the land and has the power to travel hundreds of meters on land.
Earthquakes
are ruptures and sudden movements of rocks along a
fault.
Sudden movements from rocks happen when the rocks are strained.
Heat within Earth leads to the shaking people feel during earthquakes.
Elastic strain
is energy stored as a change in shape.
The
focus
is where the earthquakes start.
Faults
are not usually just like a ine as shown on a map they are usually referred to as a fault zome because they are more complicated.

What are seismic waves, and what types are there?
Earthquake Waves
What are Earthquakes, Elastic Strain, Faults and Earthquakes
big vs. small
Aryn P.
Nikita N.
Ethan J.
Thanks for watching. We hope you've learned a lot about Earthquakes. Please comment and like if you enjoyed it! And if we left anything out make sure to tell us please.
The End
Vocab
liquefaction- the process in which shakig loose sediment makes it acts like liquid.

tsunami- ocean waves caused by an earthquakes are called seismic sea waves or a tsunami

San Andreas fault- fault zone that forms a transform plate boundary between the Pacific Plate and the North American Plate
Speeds of seismic waves
Primary waves arrive first, and then come the secondary waves, and lastly come the surface waves, which are the most devastating.
Seismic waves travel at different speeds and different places.
S-waves and P-waves can travel through Earth's interior.
Secondary Waves (S-waves) can’t travel through fluids
Large areas of Earth don’t receive any seismic waves. These are called shadow zones

Fire
Plate Boundaries
Landslides
Key vocabulary for Chapter 6, Lesson 2
At divergent boundaries, rocks break under tension stress forming normal faults.
At convergent boundaries, rocks break under compression stress causing reverse faults
At transform plate boundaries, rocks slide horizontally past one another causing strike-slip boundaries
Earthquakes that form away from Plate Boundaries can be dangerous

Seismic Waves- waves of energy produced at the focus of an earthquake

Epicenter- point on Earth's surface directly above the focus
Primary Waves(P-Waves)- compressiona waves

Secondary Waves(S-Waves)- AKA Shear waves, cause aticles to vibrate perpindicular to the direction of wave travel.
Fire is the most common hazrdthat occurs following an earthquake.
Fires usually start with earthquake rupture gas pipes and sever electric lines.
Especially dangerous because if water pipes brokeit keeps firefighters from putting out the fire.
In 1906 an earthquake in San Francisco heppened then a fire brned for 2 days and caused more damage than the earthquake itself.
Kendall R
A landslide is a sudden movement of soil and rock down a slope.
Lsndslides can do damage to property and disrupt gas pipes and electric lines.
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