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China and Japan: World Religions Geography project

Abby, Gabby, Simeon, Stephanie, Nik

Abby Salinas

on 1 January 2013

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Transcript of China and Japan: World Religions Geography project

China and Japan The Significance of Mountains Mountains are considered to be symbols of order in the natural environment (Jones 3435); according to some religions, mountains are considered the birthplace and center of the entire world. Mountains are believed to be sacred because:
idea that the tallest mountains are the supporting pillars that separate the earths and heavens
hold up the heavens

From this belief the idea arose that without these pillars, the heavens would fall from the sky. Many of the major religions in China add significance to mountains by establishing them as the residences of God and mythological figures. Mount Kailash -peak in the Kailas Range which is a part of the Transhimalaya range located in Tibet - The mountain is a sacred site for multiple religions including Buddhism, Hinduism and Jainism; Hindus believe that Mt. Kailash is the place where the God Shiva lives http://file1.npage.de/011356/31/bilder/800px-mtkailash_location.png -Each of these religion's origin myths and cosmologies state the Mount Kailash is the center of the world; they believe the mountain is the mystical Mount Meru http://sacredsites.com/asia/tibet/mt_kailash.html The cradle of Chinese civilization and the Chinese race, the Yellow River also called the Mother River (Huang He)
- provides fertility to the land. Tao Belief: The Five Great Mountains -Heng Shan Bei: mountain of the north - Hua Shan: mountain of the west - Heng Shan Nan: mountain of the South - Song Shan: mountain of the center According to legend and Taoist myth sages and mystics called "immortals" used to live in these mountainous areas; these areas where the sages lived are believed to be access points to the heavenly realm. http://sacredsites.com/asia/china/sacred_mountains.html Sacred Buddhist Mountains - Pu Tuo Shan: mountain of the east
Bodhisattva of Compassion - Wu Tai Shan: mountain of the north
Bodhisattva of Wisdom - Emei Shan: mountain of the west
Bodhisattva of Benevolent Action - Jiu Hua Shan: mountain of the south
Bodhisattva of Salvation considered by Buddhists to be the dwelling place of Bodhisattva -spiritual beings that dedicate themselves to assisting sentient creatures in the transcendence of worldly suffering as well as the attainment of enlightenment http://sacredsites.com/asia/china/sacred_mountains.html - Tai Shan: mountain of the east http://media.photobucket.com/image/recent/huafa/map-sacredmountains.jpg - The Yellow River is known as China's sorrow
- it has caused countless deaths through its devastating floods. Because of its location, Tai Shan is considered one of the most sacred of the Five Great Mountains. It is associated with the rising sun; signifying birth and renewal Tai Shan The Chinese have experienced and understood water as one of the most basic aspects of human existence. The Chinese are fascinated with water. The role they assign to water in their cosmology, and its use for religious purposes, is to be explained, in part by the exigencies (urgency or state) of Chinese geography. The Yellow River:
- essential to the development of Chinese civilization
- played a very great role in the development of civilization across the globe. http://eol.ntu.edu.cn/culture/chinaculture/img/2003-09/24/twu05_01.jpg - Chinese see themselves as children of the Yellow River
- If China had no Yellow River, the Chinese wouldn't have a place to focus their spiritual energies on. Mountains China borders Nepal and the Himalayan Mountains, both of which are rugged mountainous regions. China itself is very mountainous, especially in its southwestern region. http://www.uchinavisa.com/physical-map-of-china.html Giver of both life and death

life: fertilization and water source
death: floods Wei River area:
- secondary burial was practiced, with bones from single graves collected and reburied with those of twenty-eight others.
- This serves as proof of religion, inspired by deaths of many during river floods. Commoners' beliefs:
- closely tied to the agricultural cycle and the negative or dangerous spiritual forces inhabiting the world.
- In contrast to the more abstract Heaven, these forces took the form of an astonishing variety of gods, demons, and spirits.
- These included the gods of particular mountains, rivers, and seas. Geography The first burial customs:
- crude efforts to protect the living from the evil spirits (such as those found in the River of Sorrow)
- Believed evil spirits caused the death of a person. This fear of the dead:
- carried over into development of religious thought.
- Led to the most prominent religions in China today (Buddhism and Taoism). Pilgrimage to Kailash -It is very difficult to get to the mountain because of the rough terrain. -Buddhists, Bons, and many Tibetans make the pilgrimage. -Buddhists circle the mountain clockwise, and Bons counter-clockwise -This pilgrimage is a life changing experience and an opportunity to view some of the world's most beautiful scenery. http://sacredsites.com/asia/tibet/mt_kailash.html - extremely diverse
rugged inhospitable terrain, plains, deserts, mountain ranges, steppes. http://mappery.com/maps/China-Physical-Relief-Map.mediumthumb.jpg Japan In early times people worshiped in nature. They found evidence of kami in great rocks and enormous trees.

Kami can be and are in everything and everywhere. Therefore all of the land demands and receives great respect from its people.

If one lived in a fishing town people would go down to the shore and worship the kami of the tides and of the fish that fed the village. For example; to climb Mount Fuji would not simply be a routine climb.

To be standing on that mountain, or any other place considered to be the dwelling place of a kami is to be in the presence of the sacred.

For this reason many Japanese tours of such places include an element of pilgrimage. Kami are not intrinsically different from people, animals, or other parts of nature.

The term kami can refer to; elements and powerful forces of nature, parts of the landscape, some being themselves, spirits that inhabit things and other living beings, spirits who created the universe, and human beings who became kami after their deaths. In particular things are referred to as kami if they have qualities which are awe-inspiring or reveal their nature in a striking way.

In this way nature and the actual topography of Japan have comprised a large part of, and greatly aided in the development of the ideas and beliefs of its people. Not all kami have a shrine, but all the major deities such as Amaterasu, or those of mountains, the ocean, or the wind have a shrine.

Each shrine has its own yearly calendar of rituals and festivals. Festivals follow the agricultural calendar because Shinto began in a farming society.

Key times of celebration are during the Spring and Fall seasons as they are times of harvest and planting and life and death. Rivers Chinese Understanding of Water Significant Rivers: Significant Rivers Significant Rivers:
1. Yellow River

2. Yangtze River Chinese Understanding of Water Chinese Relationship to Bodies of Water Chinese Relationship to Water How These Beliefs Led to an Understanding of Religion and Death How These Beliefs Led to an Understanding of Religion and Death How These Beliefs Led to an Understanding of Religion and Death How These Beliefs Led to an Understanding of Religion and Death Map of Chinese Rivers Flora and Fauna: created the feeling of Union with the sacred
natural harmony and balance of land Significance of Rice Fields: Taoism and Nature: -Mother of all things

-Womb of life Agriculture is an extremely important feature of China A devastating Yellow River flood. Artwork depicting Chinese burial A video about basic understanding of the Yangtze River Discussion Questions: 1. Rivers, mountains, and other geographical features instilled great awe in the people of China and Japan. As a group, we made inferences on how reliance on a natural resource may give it a new dependence on something may lead to its glorification? Is this idea still prominent in today's society?

2. Would natural disasters increase or decrease the faith of the people? How so? Use examples from the Prezi and things stated during the group presentation. (Something to think about: River floods paved way to the custom of burial.)

3. How does geography help the individual to answer the three Fundamental Questions of religion? Can nature provide evidence of a creator? http://www.google.com/imgres?q=ancient+chinese+burial&num=10&hl=en&biw=1366&bih=667&tbm=isch&tbnid=CNXrS9MpGbUoAM:&imgrefurl=http://www.freewebs.com/aca_deca_china/chineseart.htm&docid=s0pIgHeN_SJwZM&imgurl=http://www.freewebs.com/aca_deca_china/burial.jpg&w=775&h=550&ei=Ggx2UPGNF7C70QHN0YG4Bg&zoom=1&iact=rc&dur=245&sig=102102232804419296657&page=1&tbnh=149&tbnw=203&start=0&ndsp=18&ved=1t:429,r:3,s:0,i:82&tx=116&ty=77 http://www.google.com/imgres?q=yellow+river&num=10&hl=en&biw=1366&bih=667&tbm=isch&tbnid=tOwnfGhz6dETMM:&imgrefurl=http://chinadigitaltimes.net/2006/10/yellow-river-turns-red-in-northwest-china-pti/&docid=UjgllnV3RHtHoM&imgurl=http://chinadigitaltimes.net/wp-content/uploads/mt-old/images/_neumann_travelling_china_tibet_2001_12_flight_to_tibet_lhasa_04_yellow_river.jpg&w=1024&h=768&ei=cAx2UKeENMjx0gHp1oDwBg&zoom=1&iact=rc&dur=162&sig=102102232804419296657&page=1&tbnh=129&tbnw=171&start=0&ndsp=18&ved=1t:429,r:11,s:0,i:173&tx=65&ty=55 http://www.google.com/imgres?q=yangtze+river&num=10&hl=en&biw=1366&bih=667&tbm=isch&tbnid=1P4TavtBvsiDHM:&imgrefurl=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Dusk_on_the_Yangtze_River.jpg&docid=gVYxgspGK95QTM&imgurl=http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/58/Dusk_on_the_Yangtze_River.jpg&w=3008&h=2000&ei=rgx2UPHWCMW10QHWn4H4DQ&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=1058&vpy=201&dur=376&hovh=165&hovw=243&tx=162&ty=68&sig=102102232804419296657&page=1&tbnh=138&tbnw=197&start=0&ndsp=18&ved=1t:429,r:5,s:0,i:154 http://www.google.com/imgres?q=yellow+river&um=1&hl=en&biw=1366&bih=667&tbm=isch&tbnid=GcVww7z4Iez1EM:&imgrefurl=http://5mwaterworld.wikispaces.com/HUANG%2B(HWANG)%2BRIVER&docid=6PpaYcMKZDMUoM&imgurl=http://5mwaterworld.wikispaces.com/file/view/yellow-river.jpg/236521684/412x366/yellow-river.jpg&w=396&h=286&ei=Cw12UKKlCM-v0AG6loDQDA&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=183&vpy=341&dur=273&hovh=134&hovw=181&tx=141&ty=65&sig=102102232804419296657&page=1&tbnh=129&tbnw=174&start=0&ndsp=18&ved=1t:429,r:6,s:0,i:155 http://www.google.com/imgres?q=china+flood&num=10&hl=en&biw=1366&bih=667&tbm=isch&tbnid=LRK3cZBCmXSSVM:&imgrefurl=http://dailycontributor.com/china-floods-kill-16-thousands-left-homeless/5965/&docid=lcAspl2TN57SaM&imgurl=http://dailycontributor.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/07/china-flood.jpg&w=531&h=411&ei=OQ12ULv1OO200AGypoHQAw&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=191&vpy=153&dur=100&hovh=197&hovw=255&tx=164&ty=107&sig=102102232804419296657&page=1&tbnh=145&tbnw=196&start=0&ndsp=16&ved=1t:429,r:0,s:0,i:73 http://www.google.com/imgres?q=china+agriculture&num=10&hl=en&biw=1366&bih=667&tbm=isch&tbnid=tBn2RV3Jtt2oSM:&imgrefurl=http://www.ccagr.com/content/view/62/144/&docid=RGyRFDlwZOSJ7M&imgurl=http://www.ccagr.com/images/stories/ccagr/china%252520agriculture%252520research.jpg&w=800&h=600&ei=Xg12UNP4KOmn0AGJgoGgAw&zoom=1&iact=rc&dur=326&sig=102102232804419296657&page=1&tbnh=134&tbnw=179&start=0&ndsp=18&ved=1t:429,r:8,s:0,i:125&tx=74&ty=44 http://www.toptenz.net/top-10-deadliest-natural-disasters.php http://www.google.com/imgres?q=map+rivers+china&num=10&hl=en&biw=1366&bih=624&tbm=isch&tbnid=qBldr2yWhDwcHM:&imgrefurl=http://davidderrick.wordpress.com/2008/10/13/why-the-tibetan-glaciers-matter/&docid=JmoFbIvIkSU46M&imgurl=http://davidderrick.files.wordpress.com/2008/10/tibetan-rivers.jpg&w=445&h=330&ei=FA52UIqIHPCw0QHF2IGABg&zoom=1&iact=rc&dur=99&sig=102102232804419296657&page=1&tbnh=129&tbnw=186&start=0&ndsp=19&ved=1t:429,r:13,s:0,i:114&tx=95&ty=52 Basic Role of Rivers:
- Ancient Chinese Agrarian religion revolved around the worship of natural forces and spirits
- Spirits controlled the elements and presided over rivers, fields, and mountains. -Extremely vital in society

-Bodies of water held a prominent role in the lives of the people.

-Focal point in Chinese geography THE SEA OF DEATH Hinterland of the Taklimakan Desert, Xinjiang not real
represent good luck and fortune
symbolizes adaptibility and transformation
highly respected
controls rain and thunder
after life
wood dragon, fire dragon, water dragon, metal dragon, and earth dragon The Dragon Huangguoshu Grand Waterfall - 146,000 species of flora in China DESERTS influenced from the change of season and natural disasters
can be precieved in all living things
wood Five Elements Mostly influenced Taoism represents human spirit
Blooming signifies a person's soul opening
different interpretation of color
blue Lotus about half the nation consists of deserts and grasslands Northeast
short and cool summer/ severe winter
dry and sunny in the summerTurphansevere winter
wet and miserable
Yangtze River Valley
cold during winter
tropical weather/ summer all year around
warm and humid
four seasons
Tibet Climate JAPAN Natural Disasters believed were warnings
earthquakes Yin and Yang http://www.google.com/imgres?um=1&hl=en&sa=N&biw=1436&bih=739&tbm=isch&tbnid=WTCJjiqWV2KsSM:&imgrefurl=http://chinese.herbs.webs-sg.com/articles_13.html&docid=5IdoX2a0ngV1aM&imgurl=http://chinese.herbs.webs-sg.com/images/ginseng-ren_shen.jpg&w=344&h=306&ei=kd52UIisBpL69gSX4YHgCw&zoom=1&iact=rc&dur=307&sig=104705127660624409603&page=1&tbnh=128&tbnw=144&start=0&ndsp=22&ved=1t:429,r:6,s:0,i:165&tx=76&ty=49 http://www.google.com/imgres?um=1&hl=en&sa=N&biw=1436&bih=739&tbm=isch&tbnid=sOL9HWCd3LDw0M:&imgrefurl=http://www.highlandstaichi.com/Qigong.html&docid=RpNIfvfMtx1PPM&imgurl=http://www.highlandstaichi.com/files/five%252520elements%252520%2525201.gif&w=300&h=300&ei=2uh2UOf8OYao9gT46oDIBA&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=1009&vpy=184&dur=393&hovh=225&hovw=225&tx=110&ty=121&sig=104705127660624409603&page=1&tbnh=155&tbnw=155&start=0&ndsp=19&ved=1t:429,r:5,s:0,i:156 principles that control everything in the universe
changes the seasons
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