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Nepal, Sweden, and Finland
Transcript of Nepal, Sweden, and Finland
Nepal are malnourished Young girls are welcomed into the world very differently than boys. 81.3% of Nepalese identify as Hindu The Sex preference made by the previous factors creates a population of "missing" women in many South Asian countries. Total fertility rate is 13% higher in states with a high son preference. *Boys need to be strong, not girls. *Males eat first, females eat later. Constitution of 2007:
REQUIRED: 33% of Constituent Assembly
ACTUAL: 6% in 2005 and
33% in 2011 Final birth ratio in Nepal:
147 boys born for every 100 girls born. Due to Hindu beliefs; men are needed to ritually perform funerals. Molly Dinardo, Jenn Fortin, Emily Sundstrom, Alyssa Oliveira The Presence of Sex & Gender Roles in Nepal and the Nordic Countries of Sweden and Finland What is The Gender Gap Index Report? Economic participation and opportunity: female labor force participation, wage equality, percentage of women in high ranking jobs
Educational attainment: female literacy, how frequently women are enrolled in higher education
Health and survival: compare male and female life expectancy and mortality rates
Political empowerment: examines number of women holding political office as well as the number of female heads of state over the last 50 years. Education in Nepal Economics in Nepal Politics in Nepal Health in Nepal Education in Sweden Economics in Finland and Sweden Health in Sweden Restrictions on Education for Women Preference of Sons
Girls Assets Only for Marriage
Families Unable to See Economic Investment of Education Physical Cultural Gender Equality in Sweden Elementary School systems created for boys and girls. 1842 1938 Women have right to vote and run for office. Ban on birth control education abolished. 1921 Employment equity and equal pay in all professions. 1946 Succession to the throne becomes gender neutral. 1980 All occupations are available to women. 1983 Household Chores
Family Income "Equal-Status
Sweden equal status in employment, family, & politics both genders be represented equally in all occupations. hierarchies, and salaries equal in politics through representation in all political roles and both vote frequently women gain independence and individual benefits All children have equal access
to education Equal education standards
between different schools Promotion of equality between genders Education Act of 1985 Explicit beliefs and actual behavior: In 2006, Nepal
was ranked #102
Gender Equality In 2012, Nepal
was ranked #37
Gender Equality Females
48.3% Literacy Rate Males
73% http://www.riksdagen.se/en/How-the-Riksdag-works/Members-and-parties/ Time With A Newborn: Maternity Leave Policies Around The World 480 days, 80% income paid for by social security. 90 days allotted to father. 52 days maternity leave, 100% income compensation paid by employer. 84 days maternity leave with no compensation. Parental Leave:
* 480 days per child.
* Can spend however they choose until the child is 8 years old.
* 60 allocated for father.
* Enforced by law, employers have no disincentive when hiring fertile women.
* "Child Support" vs. "Study Support" Gender Inequality in Education Continuation of Educational Inequality for Girls Expectation for boys to get higher education and good jobs (Male Preference) Early
Marriage Poverty Lack of Quality Learning Opportunities for Girls Problem
99% Literacy Rate Politics in Sweden and Finland 45% of
55% is men -4th highest proportion
of females in a national
parliament Riksdag is "what resembles a parliament" of Sweden http://www.vagranthumanist.com/nepal/politics-government-elections-and-parties/ Women Make Up 60% of University Students Women contribute about 70% of the work in livestock rearing oversee day-to-day decisions
fodder and forest leaf litter
water the livestock
application of compost
use of home based processing of livestock products Women: life-giving and religious works Men: customary roles as hunters and "warrior traders", trade is seen as mens work When men share in domestic tasks, power relations within the household may be more balanced, and women are less likely to be subordinate Existing gender differences not seen as natural and acceptable, important to address in order to tackle household and community poverty (Norad Gender Report) Nira: "Few few few women make it to the same economic level as men. A guy is more likely to get a job for no reason, this is for any kind of job, especially traveling ones." Women & Men have equal pay in most jobs with the exception of:
human resources Reasons for increase in women in the labor force:
To contribute to a family income that will allow for a higher standard of living
Hours increased because prices increased in the 1980’s
50% of the work force
81% of women and 87% of men are employed
85% of social workers, nurses, preschool/childcare workers
82% of health-care workers
80% of hotel/office cleaners/kitchen workers
20% of computer programmers
25% are employed in “industry” jobs
2% of truck drivers Finnish Women compared to men:
More approachable & outgoing
Comfortable with foreigners
Play part in conversation
Think multidimensionally "Many Finnish male executives have agreed that their effectiveness is due to the capable, well-educated, and talented secretary or personal assistant positioned behind him. In many cases she is low profile, even invisible, but her role is probably more important than in most countries." 5 South Africa
17 Saudi Arabia
6 United States
12 Dominican Republic Finland #2 (.8451)
Sweden #4 (.8159)
United States #22 (.7373)
Nepal #123 (.6026)