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Copy of Values, Attitudes &

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khym manalili

on 28 January 2014

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Transcript of Copy of Values, Attitudes &

How People Learn
Values are not inborn, they are learned.
- refer to the importance a person attaches to things or ideas that serves as guide to action
Types of Values
Individual VS. Organizational Values
Espoused Vs. Enacted Values
Espoused values - are what members of the
organization say they value
Instrumental and Terminal Values
Terminal values - represents the goals
that a person would
like to achieve in his
lifetime. (love, freedom)
Values, Attitudes &
Job Satisfaction

- enduring beliefs that one's mode of conduct is better than the opposite mode of conduct
1. Modeling
2. Communication of Attitudes
3. Unstated but implied attitudes
4. Religion
1. Achievement
- value that pertains to getting things done and working hard to accomplish goals
2. Helping and concern for others
- refers to the person's concern with
other people and providing assistance
to those who need help
3. Honesty
- indicates the person's concern
for telling the truth and doing
what he thinks is right.
4. Fairness
- value that indicates the
person's concern for
impartiality and fairness for all
Organizational Values
when congruent with
The Individual's Values
Positive Feelings
Organizational Values
The Individual's Values
Enacted values - those that are reflected in
the actual behavior of the
individual members of
the organization
Instrumental values - preferable modes
of behavior or means
of achieving the
terminal values.
Instrumental Values
Terminal Values
- ambition
- honesty
- self sufficiency
- courage
- forgiving nature
- helpfulness
- self - control
- independence
- happiness
- pleasure
- self -respect
- freedom
- world peace
- equality
-inner peace
- linked with perception, learning, emotions, and motivation
- feelings and beliefs that largely determine how employees will perceive their environment, commit themselves to intended actions, and ultimately behave
Main Components of Attitudes
Cognitive Component
- refers to the opinion or belief segment of an attitude
Affective component
- refers to the emotional or feeling segment
Behavioral component
- refers to the intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or something
negative attitude towards boss
my boss is fickle-minded;
he cannot stick to his decision
I hate my boss
I am requesting for a transfer
Differences in Personal Disposition
Positive activity
refers to personal characteristic of employees that inclines them to be predisposed to be satisfied at work

- optimistic
- upbeat
- cheerful
Negative activity
is a personal characteristic of employees that inclines them to be predisposed to be dissatisfied at work
- pessimistic
- downbeat
- irritable
- abrasive
How Attitudes are Formed
Direct experience
Indirect experience
- result of social interactions with the family, peer groups, religious organizations and culture
Most Important Attitudes in the Workplace
1. Job satisfaction
2. Job involvement
3. Organization commitment
Effects of Employee Attitudes
Positive job attitudes
- indicate job satisfaction and are useful in predicting constructive behaviors like serving customers beyond working hours, and performing excellently in all aspects of their jobs.
Negative job attitudes
- useful in predicting undesirable behavior
Dissatisfied employees most likely:
psychological withdrawal like daydreaming on the job
physical withdrawal (unauthorized absences...)
aggression (verbal abuse...)
Making Positive Attitudes Work for the Organization
Job Satisfaction
- the attitude people have about their jobs
- positive feeling about one's job resulting from an evaluation of its characteristics
When people are satisfied with their jobs, the following benefits become possible:
- a stronger tendency to achieve customer loyalty
- high productivity
- loyalty to the company
- low absenteeism and turnover
- less job stress and burnout
- better safety performances
- better life satisfaction
Factors Associated with Job Satisfaction
- adequacy of salary and perceived equity
compared with others
Work itself
- the extent to which job tasks are
considered interesting and provide
opportunities for learning and
accepting responsibilities.
Promotion opportunity
- chances for further
Quality of supervision
- the technical competence and the
interpersonal skills of one's immediate superior
Relationship with co-workers
- the extent to which co-workers
are friendly, competent and supportive
Working conditions
- the extent to which physical work
environment is comfortable and supportive of
Job security
- the beliefs that one's position is relatively secure
and continued employment with the organization is a
reasonable expectation
Ways of Measuring Job Satisfaction
Single global rating method
-individuals are asked to respond to a single question
How satisfied are you with your job?
___ 1. Highly satisfied
___ 2. Moderately satisfied
___ 3. Indifferent
___ 4. Moderately dissatisfied
___ 5. Highly dissatisfied
The respondents indicate their answer by putting a check before any numbers
Summation Score Method
- individuals indicate their feelings regarding each key factors of their job

- factors normally consist of the
Job Involvement
- refers to the degree to which a person identifies with the job, actively participates in it, and considers performance important to self-worth.
Organizational Commitment
- degree to which an employee identifies with a particular organization and its goals and wishes to maintain membership in the organization
- reflects employee's belief in the mission and goals of the organization, willingness to expend effort in accomplishing them, and intentions to continue working in the organization
Organization commitment: Three Dimensions
Affective Commitment
- refers to the employee's emotional attachment to the organization and belief in its values
Continuance commitment
- refers to the employee's tendency to remain in an organization because he cannot afford to leave
Normative commitment
- refers to an obligation to remain with the company for moral or ethical reaseon
Full transcript