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Phonetics

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Hayoung Back

on 6 November 2014

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Transcript of Phonetics

CS 157
division of voiceless sound
[p] sound
GAME!!!
Place of Articulation
Manner of Articulation I
Manner of Articulation II
Phonetics : Consonants
Phonetics
Voiced / Voiceless sound
Bilabial
sound segment
The phonetic alphabet
Identity of speech sounds
The sounds of language
Stop
Nasal / Oral sound
Labiodental
Interdental
by
inserting
the tip of the
tongue between the teeth
air stream is completely blocked
Alveolar
[t] [d] [n] [s] [z] [l] [r]
≠ continuants
Palatal
Uvular
by raising the back of the tongue to the uvula
Glottal
1. The
[h]
sound is from the flow of air through the open glottis ex) house, high
1. [p] pie
voiced sound
vocal cords are together
voiceless sound
vocal cords are apart
airstream forces its way through vocal cords
[p] [b] [m]
bilabial stop
air is blocked by two lips coming together

f
ine /
v
ine
s
eal /
s
eal
[
f
aɪn] / [
v
aɪn] [
s
il /
z
il]
ex) buzz [
b
ʌ
z
]
[t] [d] [n]
alveolar stops
the air is blocked by the tip of the tongue touching the tooth ridge
2. [b] book
3. [m] mom
air flows freely through the glottis into the oral cavity
Bilabial
by bringing
both

lips together
gray day
grade A
ICE CREAM
by touching

the bottom lip
to the upper teeth
I SCREAM
1. [f] face
2. [v] video
I scream
Interdental
Labiodental
are pronounced with
tongue
raised
to the
alveolar ridge
Alveolar
Alveolar
[s], [z]
[t] [d] [n]
ex) twin, dream, nurse
The things we discuss this chapter
the
tongue tip is raised
and
touches the ridge
, or slightly in front it
speech sound
How classified
the sides of the front of
the tongue are raised, the tip is raised lowered

Velar
produced when the

back of the tongue comes into contact with the velum
How produce
What is the phonetics?
The study of speech sound is called phonetics
Alveolar
the tongue tip is raised
[l]
ex) lion
Alveolar
[r]
curl the tip of the tongue
back behind alveolar ridge
ex) rabbit
produced when the tip of the
tongue touches at the palate
1. acoustic phonetic: It focus on the physical properties of sound.
2. auditory phonetics: It is concerned with how listener perceive these sounds.
3. articulatory phonetics: It is the study of how the vocal tract produces the sounds of language
Same sound but represent variously
The silly amoeba stole the key to the machine
Did he believe that Caesar could see the people seize the seas?
e,ie,ae,ee,eo,ei,ea,y,oe,ey ,and I
Same letter but various sound
My father wanted many a village dame badly
father,wanted,many,a,village,dame,badly
Combination of letters but
a single sound
shoot character Thomas physics

either deal rough nation

coat glacial theater plain

cute (sounds like kyute; compare:coot)

fume (sounds like fyume; compare: fool)

use (sounds like yuse; compare:Uzbekistan)
mnemonic autumn resign ghost

pterodactyl write hole corps

psychology sword debt gnaw

bough lamb island knot
Palatal
1. [ʃ] wash
p
it / s
p
it
2. [ʒ] pleasure
3. [ʧ] future
aspirated
unaspirated
aspirated / unaspirated
ex) pool [pʰul]
tale [tʰel]
4. [dʒ] judge
5. [j] yoyo
Velar
1. [k] like
2. [ɡ] bag
3. [ŋ] sing
ex) [ʀ], [q], [ɢ]
These sounds do not ordinarily occur in English.
b / p
voiced / voiceless
b /m
?
oral sound

2. Glottal stop
[ʔ]
sound is produced when the air is stopped completely at the glottis by tightly closed vocal cords.
ex) the interjection uh-oh
sh,ch,th,ph,th,ea,gh,ti,oa,ci,th,ai
IPA: International phonetic Alphabet.
spelled
th
,
[θ], [ð]
lateral sound
velar stops
[tʃ] [dʒ]
palatal affricates
(with complete stop closures)
[ʔ]
glottal stop
stop is made by an extremely short blockage of air just below the glottis
[k] [g] [ŋ]
air is blocked by the back of the tongue touching the soft palate
idea of [aɪdɪə ˀ əv]
mitten
button
mountain
curtain
Fricatives
partial obstuction is made to cause friction
Complete blockage of the airstream as in the stops [t] and [d]
Partial blockage of the airstream as in the fricatives [s] and [z]
[f] [v]
labiodental fricatives
[θ] [ð]
interdental fricatives
[s] [z]
alveolar fricatives
[ʃ] [ʒ]
palatal fricatives
[x] [ɣ]
velar fricatives
[h]
glottal fricative
Affricates
Liquids
Glides
Approximants
Flaps
Click
combination of a stop followed immediately by a fricative
[tʃ] [dʒ]
air passes through the mouth in a somewhat liquid manner
some obstuction of the airstream but not enough to cause any real constriction or friction
The lateral [l]
The retroflex [r]
tip of the tongue touches the tooth ridge
air passes through the sides of the tongue
tip of the tongue is slightly curled back in the mouth
after saying [j] or [w], the tongue glides quickly into place to pronounce the next vowel
[j] [w]
[j]
lips rounded
back of the tongue is raised towards the velum
[w]
[ʍ]
palatal
blade of the tongue is raised toward the hard palate
(labio-velar glide)
voiced
voiceless
[w] [j] [l] [r]
articulators approximate a frictional closeness but no actual friction occurs
Trills
a trilled "r" is produced by rapid vibrations of an articulator.
alveolar trill
Spanish 'perro'
tongue tip is vibrated against the alveolar ridge
[r]
uvular trill
French 'rouge'
produced by vibrating the uvula
[R]
produced by a flick of the tongue against the alveolar ridge
sounds like a fast d
Spanish 'pero'
[ɾ]
≠[r]
"mi nombre es perro,
pero yo soy un ser humano"
"exotic" sounds
made by moving air in the mouth between various articulators
e.g.) tsk - alveolar click
used by several languages of southern Africa (Zulu & Xhosa)
win and earn a candy!
nasal sound
causes vibration
Articulatory Phonetic
Sound Segments
ex) super [
s
u
p
ər]
[ ]
International Phonetic Alphabet
ɹ
Alternative
ro
p
e / ro
b
e fa
t
e / fa
d
e
[ro
p
] / [ro
b
] [fe
t
] / [fe
d
]
The examples of alternative
Utility of phonetic alphabet
Voiced
Voiceless
Oral
Nasal
b d g
m n ŋ
p t k
*
friction created at the lips and teeth
the way the airstream is blocked as it travels through the vocal tract
nasal / oral distinction
friction is at the opening between the tongue and teeth
friction created at the alveolar ridge
friction created between the tongue and the palate
friction in the velum
made by air passing through the open glottis and pharynx
Full transcript