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Intro and Meaurement
Transcript of Intro and Meaurement
physiology of the sensory organs
We share the same reality? Colour blindness
Virtual reality Synaesthesia One day,' I said to my father, 'I realized that to make an 'R' all I had to do was first write a 'P' and then draw a line down from its loop. And I was so surprised that I could turn a yellow letter into an orange letter just by adding a line.' Distal stimulus
The stimulus in the outside world.
Receptors are specially designed to pick up this energy.
The energy on the receptors
Transduction -physical energy into electro-chemical energy. Processing of sensory input
The study of how the “contents” of the mind got there.
How we gain knowledge of reality
Our only access to the world “outside” our body Selective
Appropriate to the environment
Controlled by “patterns”
Metatheories Gibsonian - “direct perception”, perception as an adaptation to the environment
Information Processing - stages that construct an internal representation
Computational -mathematical and computer modelling Early Psychology Classic Psychology Modern Approaches Study of the “soul”; how it remembers, perceives,
eg, Plato, Aristotle, Descartes
Approach: conceptual analysis
analysis of word meanings
inconsistencies in accounts of perception, cognition
necessary conditions on our experience of the world Is the mind separate from the body (brain)? - Monism vs dualism
Is knowledge acquired (Empiricism) or innate (built-in)?
Psychophysics, structuralism and Atoms of thought Wundt, Titchner, Helmholtz These atoms are not able to be measured Behaviorism
stimulus (S) - usually simple: blue light
response (R) - usually simple (eg, eye blink)
links/reflexes between S and R
stimuli and responses can be very complex in real life
links/thinking/reflexes can be very complex
no study of conscious experience Gestalt Ecological/Direct Laws of organization Perception of whole forms Invariance Reification Multistability Prägnanz J.J. Gibson Invariance Affordances and Use Methods Signal Detection Theory Method of Limits Method of Adjustment (MOA) Method of Forced Choice Method of Constant Stimuli The order of presentation of the stimulus is randomized, so the subject cannot anticipate the intensity of the stimulus on any given trial The subject adjusts the intensity until the stimulus is judged to be (in the case of a visual stimulus) "just visible". Present stimuli of increasing intensity until subjects can detect it Response Bias & Outcome Beta Two things matter here; Discriminability and the Criterion to respond receiver operating characteristic (ROC) d’ is the difference between the means of the noise (N) and the signal+noise (SN) distributions, divided by the standard deviation of the noise (N).
d’ = [SN - N] / N Laws Weber's Law Speed-accuracy Realtionship Fechner's Law Steven's Law The size of a JND is related to the size of the standard stimulis Sound, weight, brightness, etc. Weber Fraction (k) indicates the amount that a stimulis needs to change to be noticable Accuracy (at difficult detections) goes down as speed goes uo Direct and Indirect Scaling jnd as the unit of comparison Weber's law Example: volume on music player Magnitude Estimation The relationship between the physical intensity of a stimulus and perception of that stimulus Intensity Power esimates for different stimuli Sensation and Perception: An introduction