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Transcript of Animal Cloning
Jacob Tammi & Melissa Garcia Animal Cloning What is Animal Cloning? Its is when a single cell is taken from a parent organism and used to reproduce a genetically identical organism.
The most common and modern technique of cloning is called "somatic cell nuclear transfer." Dolly the Sheep... The First, real, Big Deal Cloned Horse Reproducing endangered or extinct animals.
-cloning animals of disease
-cloning stem cells for research
-cloning farm animals for drug reproduction
-tool for conserving and regenerating animal genomes; genomes containing natural disease resistance are exceptionally useful in animal cloning
-sport animal genomes can be used to extend "pure-bred" genes to the next generation
Cloning a deceased pet or child Advantages for Cloning High failure rate: only 30/1000 attempts are made due to: implantation or pregnancy might fail, the enucleated egg and the transferred nucleus are not compatible, an egg with a newly transferred nucleus may not begin to divide or develop properly.
Some people are againts because they consider it "unnatural" or "playing God", therefore, there are many organizations that attempt to prevent this testing. Difficulties with Cloning Problems with Successful Animal Clones Dolly How...? The most common process of animal cloning is called somatic cell nuclear transfer; it is the transfer of genetic information of a cell of the potential clone, also known as reproductive cloning, which is the transfer of the DNA into an egg of a surrogate to create a duplicate organism. There are three main stages involved in order to complete cloning and each stage is very delicate; these stages are: nucleus transfer, stimulated cell division, and embryotic transfer into the host animal.
A difficulty associated with creating a clone from a differentiated animal cell are that differentiated animal cells are unable to develop into complete animals but the nuclei of most differentiated cells retain all the necessary genetic information.
The role of nuclear transfer in animal cloning is that it is put into the DNA from the parent into the egg to form the clone.
Some problems associate with animal cloning are that the enucleated egg and the transferred nucleus may not be compatible with one another, the egg with a freshly transmitted nucleus may not begin the dividing process or develop properly, implantation of the embryo into the surrogate mother may fail, as well as the pregnancy itself. Cloned Animals have the tendency to be born larger than those during natural pregnancy, if it does survive; it is called “Large Offspring Syndrome” which can lead to breathing and blood flow complications. Also abnormal gene expression patterns and telomeric differences can cause difficulties during the cloning process in the cell division stages. Conclusion Cloning by nuclear transplantation.
Process was called a somatic cell nuclear transfer.
This involves removing the nucleus of an egg and replacing it with the diploid of the nucleus of a somatic cell.
There is only one single
genetic "parent." Few Clones are born healthy.
Birth defects, physiological impairments, illness, and premature death. (Large Offspring Syndrome)
Abnormal gene expression patterns: will the clones express the right genes at the right time? It's up to the scientist to reprogram the nucleus in order for normal development.
Telomeric Differences: If an older animal is used for cloning, its telomeres will be shorter. Scientists aren't sure why cloned animals show differences in telomere length. Mouse, the foal that represents the successful cloning efforts and the latest in equine reproduction science at Texas A&M University College of Veterinary Medicine & Biomedical Sciences.
The owner wanted another "Marc", his previous prized Lippizan mare, so he cloned her and produced Mouse. Meet Marc and Mouse Dolly was born on February 22, 1997 and
lived for six years.
She was created by Ian Wilmut and was
originally code-named "6LL3".
Dolly got her name in honor of Dolly Parton
because she was cloned from a mammary cell. Types of Animal Cloning The first cloning experiments on animals date from the
nineteenth century. In 1891 Hans Driesch separated the blastomeres
(cells formed in the first stages of embryonic development) of a
two-cell embryo of sea urchin mechanically by shaking them in
seawater. The cells started to grow independently and formed
two whole sea urchins.
Another form of cloning is the active induction of asexual plant reproduction, which involves rooting and grafting. It has been a widespread performance in agriculture history; basically since humans became evolved enough to participate in farming, to breed, keep the desirable traits such as growth, flavor and resistance to disease, and do away with any undesirable traits. Disadvantages of Cloning A cloned animal can only live about half of the average life span as the naturally produced animal in which it was cloned from.
It is said that cloning for food resources isn’t the true reasoning, but rather the animal that is cloned lives a life of research and undergoes endless testing, therefore, leaving it “useless”.
Many people, especially those of religious nature, believe cloning to be inhumane and don’t want to move scientifically advance with this research because they believe that life is too precious to take away, even if it is a clone in which scientists are testing upon. Stages of "SCNT" 1st: nucleus transfer...
2nd: stimulated cell division...
3rd: embryotic transfer into the host animal...