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Psycology and the Brain Sensation and Perception

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on 9 March 2014

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Transcript of Psycology and the Brain Sensation and Perception

Divisions of the human nervous system
Functions of the structures in the
Central Nervous System
Psychology and the Brain Sensation and Perception
Amal Al Shamsi
Rawan El Kaial

Functions of the structures in the
Central Nervous System
Lateralization of Brain Functions
Nervous System


Central Nervous System Peripheral Nervous System

Brain Spinal Chord Autonomic Somatic
Nervous System Nervous System


Forebrain Midbrain Hindbrain


The Spinal Chord:
Acts like the main pathway for information between the brain and the peripheral nervous system.
It is made of neurons protected by the bones of the spine, the vertebrae.
The Brain:
It is the command central whole body.
Different parts of the brain perform different jobs such as processing languages, feelings, memories, musical and artistic ability, and just daily actions.
Consists of two hemispheres (right and left) and three parts (hindbrain, midbrain and forebrain).
There is also localization of function on either the right or left sides of the brain; lateralization. Which is what causes the two hemispheres.
The two halves ("hemispheres") of the brain are joined by the corpus collosum; the two sides also communicate through this stucture.

Lateralization is the idea that the two halves of the brain's cerebral cortex -- left and right -- execute different functions. This way of thinking helps to understand our behavior, our personality, our creativity, and our ability to use the proper mode of thinking when performing particular tasks. Yet for the more important functions, the hemispheres wore together across the corpus collosum.

Right Hemisphere Functions
Controls left side of the body
Identifies patterns such as paths in roads
Controls artistic talents and abilities, and imagination
Left Hemisphere Functions
Controls right side of the body
Controls language, speech and reading.
In charge of schedules and planning; keeps us on time
The Endocrine System and Hormones
The endocrine system is the nervous system's partner in controlling and coordinating the functions of the body.
The difference is that the nervous system deals with immediate response while the endocrine system deals with slower performance that vary from days to weeks.

The endocrine system's counterparts to neurotransmitters are hormones, which have a large impact on human behavior and processes.
Hormones and the Endocrine System
Hormones play a key role in human behavior, affecting how a person acts and feels in a variety of situations.

Effects of hormones on behavior could be for example that, hormonal issues proved linked to behaviors such as violence and anger and can also play a role in depression and anxiety. Many hormones are responsible for many different experiences of the human body, such as sleep from the melatonin hormone.
Genetic Transmission
Genetic transmission is the transfer of genetic information from genes to another generation (from parent to offspring).

Hereditary influences like those appear to have relatively large effect on how children turn out and how they behave. Researchers believe that the influence of genes on behavior has been well established in the scientific community. To a large extent, who we are and how we behave is a result of our genetic makeup. While genes do not determine behavior, they play a role in what we do and why we do it. Genetics also play a large role in when and how learning, growing, and development occurs. Like a baby learning to walk only after a certain age, and then beginning to speak.
Effects of Heredity and Environment
Heredity is the passing of traits to offspring from its parents or ancestor, and is said to be responsible for many of an individual's traits. Abstract traits such as intelligence, personality, and aggression are said to be encoded in an individual's DNA according to the Nature Theory.

The second factor is environment, one's surroundings, which is labeled as the nurture theory. It is argued that our genetics play little of a role in our development and personality and that behavioral aspects originate only from the environmental factors of our upbringing.

Though these factors can impact the probability of acting a certain way, it will not necessarily make you do things. Like having intelligent professors for parents will not guarantee you being smart and following their careers or if you grow up in a place of criminal activity that you will become one as well though both are likely.
Advances in Neuroscience
Researchers in Taiwan recently found that applying a weak electrical current over the front of study participants’ scalps for just ten minutes significantly improved their ability to control their behavior.
Scientists in Germany used pattern recognition software to predict, from functional magnetic resonance imaging of people's brains, whether each person had secretly decided to add or subtract two numbers he was looking at. This was correctly predicted about 70% of the time; a step towards mind-reading.
Coming closer to artificial and technological intelligence, as a program beat the world's best chess player in a game of chess. And computers also improved their ability to adapt and modify themselves, as a robot demonstrated that it could recognize an injury to itself, infer how its limbs worked, and adjust its method of locomotion.
The Process of Sensation Vs. Perception
Our sensory systems- vision, hearing, tasting, smelling and touching- are done by our paired sensory organs- eyes, ears, tongue, nose and skin. These receptors allow us to physically attain information we are constantly getting from our surroundings.

This information then gets transferred to the brain in a way that nerves, impulses and languages can understand. This process of the brain interpreting the information of sensations is perception. Thus, linking the two in a vital process that we use daily.
Sensation and Perception
An example of how they interact is when we hear the sound of a tap running (sensation) and that is sent to the brain and decipher for our impulses that we have to turn the tap off (perception). Technically, when looking at it this way, hearing does not take place in the ear but the brain through the two processes.
Threshold and Adaption
Thresholds are the minimum stimuli that can be detected by our main sensory systems. for example: In hearing, the absolute threshold refers to the smallest level of a tone that can be detected by normal hearing.
The ability to adjust to new information and experiences. Through adaptation, we are able to adopt new behaviors that allow us to cope with change.


Quiz Questions
1. Name the major divisions of the human nervous system .
2. Explain the effects of environment and heredity on an individual in two extreme cases.
3. What is the lateralization of the brain and does this mean that the two hemispheres are totally separate?
4. list the four most important Gestalt laws of perception.
5.Compare binocular and monocular depth cues.
6. Describe how expectations influence our perception.
sources
http://psychology.about.com/od/glossaryfromatoz/g/absolutethresh.htm
http://www.psychological-observations.com/psychological-laws/law-of-adaptation
http://pathology.mc.duke.edu/neuropath/nawr/sensory.html
http://www.spdaustralia.com.au/the-auditory-system-2/
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taste
Vhttp://uncgqep.uncg.edu/forms/Blooms%20Taxonomy%20Action%20Verbs.pdf
The visual sensory system
It gives organisms the ability to process visual details.
The sensory organ of the visual system is the eye which detects and focuses stimuli.
The principle function of the iris (colored part of the eye) is to control the amount of light which enters the eye via the pupil.
The visual system has the complex task of (re)constructing a three dimensional world from a two dimensional projection of that world.
Auditory sensory system
The human ear's purpose in the area of hearing is to convert sound waves into nerve impulses
The human ear has three parts: external,middle and inner ear.
In the external ear ,air conducts sound waves. in the middle ear ,bone conducts sound waves.fluid conducts fluid in the inner ear
These impulses are then perceived and interpreted by the brain as sound via auditory nerves.
Gustatory sensory system
Taste is the sensation produced when a substance in the mouth reacts chemically with receptors of taste buds.
Taste buds are located on the surface of the tongue, they are sensitive to chemicals associated with one of the four primary taste qualities ;bitter,sour,sweet and salty.
The brain interprets the patterns of neural impulses from the taste buds as one of the four tastes or a combination.
The Olfactory system
Receptors for smell are located in the nose.
As we inhale ,odors enter the nose and are detected by upper nasal passages
This shoots a neural impulse to olfactory bulbs.
The brain is sent sensory codes and interprets them as particular odor.
Gestalt principles of perception
Gestalt psychologists believed that the whole is more important than individual small parts and that each part affects one another.
The four most important of these laws are:
law of proximity:

Grouping together things that are close to one another.
law of similarity:
Grouping together .things that have some visual element in common, such as size, shape, or color.
Law of continuation :
we tend to see interrupted lines as continuous lines with something hiding part of them.
law of closure:
we tend to fill in missing details to complete a figure so that it has a consistent overall form.
Monocular and Binocular Depth Cues
Several characteristics of our visual system work together to enable us to perceive depth.
Monocular cues
: they work if we look through one eye.
Ex: Accommodation(the change in the shape of the lens that varies with distance).
Binocular cues
: requires the use of two eyes.
Ex: Convergence(the way your eyes rotate inward and outward with changes in distance).

Illusions
Something that deceives by producing a false or misleading impression of reality.
The most famous five are:
The Muller Lyer
The Ponzo railroad track
The Necker cube
Boring figure
The Ames room
Experiences and expectations have a big impact on perception.
How you feel about something and what you're expecting can change how you see things.
For example, food products will seem to be brighter in color when you are hungry.
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