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Transcript of Interprofessional Practice
The importance of Collaborative/Partnership
We keep in contact with other professionals, support staff , students and their families through
When Communicating with students, families & other professionals, it is important to:
listen to people, watch your body language,ready to listen, be respectful, be positive, optimistic, approachable, friendly, open-minded, flexible, simple-clear & concise, tactful, transparent, considerate, trustworthy, reliable, honest
negativity, blame, gossip, insult, ignorance, misunderstandings, competition, fear, pessimistic personalities, reluctance towards change
face to face, telephone calls, text, e-mails, skype, video-conference, NZ relay, TTY, fax, i-pod/i-pad, social media
share expertise, ideas, working together, common goals/interests positive team relations, team responsibilities, team ethics, active team player, complement and not compete, constructive criticism, feeling valued, appreciated, feedback-feed forward, team dynamics
Challenges to effective collaborative partnerships
The 'pikorua' or double twist represents friendship and loyalty, the coming together of different people and cultures for eternity
(cc) photo by theaucitron on Flickr
Specialist Teachers for the Deaf
When teaching deaf and hard of hearing students from diverse backgrounds, it is necessary to:
learn about the culture/language, show you're culturally sensitive with teaching styles, meetings, appreciation,
inquire respectfully, customize learning programs,
appreciate origins, acculturate within Maori culture
Challenges with teaching deaf and hard of hearing students from diverse backgrounds
time it takes to understand different cultures,
expectations of the dominant culture,
physical, physical/financial drawbacks,
immigration hiccups that affect students welfare
Treaty of Waitangi
guided by Positive Partnership, Positive Participation and Collaboration
"strength based process", "Ka Hikitia Maori Education" strategy 2008 - 2012,
sharing of power in relationships - operate on a level where each one feels valued,
respecting the Treaty principles through enhancing relationships
multiculturalism (celebration of everyone's differences),
IEP process (collaboration with students, their families/whanau),
acknowledge Maori, Pasifika and other cultural language and mannerisms (greetings, pronunciation of names)
The cultural competent teacher
is aware of the differences that exist in the class (degrees of hearing loss, communication preferences/needs, culture, religion, ethnicity, abilities, needs), not making assumptions, finding out more and learning from the students
"while many people come from other countries to live in New Zealand, they have a homeland for their culture"
Luisa's Interview 2012
We need to be flexible in, when and where to have the meetings (IEP) with the family.
For some families it is easy for them to come to the school but for some families, it will be to difficult.
Have IEP meetings on building site, family home, at the start give the family options to run the meeting, for some it is important to pray over the meeting
Make sure that they get to talk first.
1. Use verbal and written Maori/Pasifika/cultural greetings when appropriate
2. Responsive to the fact that schools have different cultures such as catholic schools they have morning prayers and school mass etc
3. Take shoes off when visiting homes
4. You have to look at the person from the inside and become aware of other cultures.
Culturally responsive behaviour
1. I think one of the determining things in the culture of our education system is the NZ Sign Language curriculum as it is one of the important things that affects the cultural aspect of our practice.
2. One of the things that really brought the Deaf community into prominence was the sign language interpreters who were filmed throughout the devastating events with the earthquakes.
Being culturally responsive in IEP meetings
EVIDENCE BASED PRACTICE -
1. Made up of three things: Research, Practitioner knowledge, Families
2. Questions that help us think about those 3 things :
How do I know it worked?
Why does it work?
What will I do next time?
Thoughts on how research evidence guides practice
"I read others research but I also do my own research through assessments, talking to others etc... books, online"
"Internet issue-Who wrote it?,Is it reliable?. e.g:- research on Maori D/deaf children only
involved 5 deaf children what does this really tell us?"
Opportunities for Professional Development
1. Up-skill by reading, Continuing Competency Program, supervisor appraisal and general discussion, working in different roles, going to PD at KDEC
2. In-service courses offered by Base school- Van Asch
3. Local teachers college of Education
Important beliefs in the successful learning of Deaf and hearing impaired students
1. The biggest challenge is in the area of literacy.
2. People's attitude.
3. Making sure students have the best technology to access the information.
4. Being honest and transparent when communicating .
Perspectives on inclusive education and education in specialised settings
Being aware of our students needs
For some students full inclusion will work but for others a mix of inclusion and withdrawal may be required
Evidence Based teaching strategies
Use of visuals, for NZSL students, word banks, consider sitting arrangements
figure out the mood and level of excitement and settling them in before starting work, Clearly explaining the lesson outline, be prepared for the lesson,
Have a sense of enthusiasm about what you're teaching, specific resources that have been made by the resource department at KDEC such as “First 100 words” and “Prepositions” CD-ROMs from the KDEC Resource Department.
Evaluation and Reflection (Teaching)
Collaboration with classroom teachers, support the teacher program, participation strategies
Adapting class program to meet needs of the student, modify teacher’s teaching style and match to student’s learning style.
Check FM, Have rules, adaptation of the curriculum- look at the tasks, KDEC pamphlets
Graphic organizers/visual clues
Group work / written explanations with step by step instructions, Specific information about the student’s medical condition,
Pre-teaching on the topic by Teacher aide, Technical support and running records, modelling, feedback, Scaffolding,
Guided Reading, Guided Writing, Picture flick and pre-reading discussion (pictures of unknown vocab in a notebook),
Visual vocab, Blend and chunk activities, Language goals integrated, regular retell.
"..the principle thing is that the child is central and its the child for whom you want the very best for therefore your relationships with others must be respectful.." Carol interview, 2012
"..when creating goals, everyone has ideas and comes from a different perspective, you need to incorporate all these ideas and find the best course for that particular child.." Scott interview, 2012
" ..some people get defensive, some are reluctant to change..different personalities.." Vivita interview 2012
"..some services just ring and turn up..make sure that it causes the least disruption.." Ram interview 2012
.."ringing, texting, asking their opinions, advice is important..Brofenbrenner talks about the fact that the more connections we make between teachers and families, the better the child will do.." Luisa interview, 2012
"..I text them both as well, .. better than the home school book..parents haven't got time to write in the home-school books.."
Emma interview 2012
".. there is all that simple stuff i.e. always greet people with a smile, take interest in what they're saying".. - Christelle interview 2012
"..relationships develop over time..showing parents that I really do care about their child and them..helping the classroom teacher in any way..a smile and a positive outlook goes quite a long way".. - Angela interview 2012
Current perspectives on Special Education and guiding documents
Inclusive practice, More diverse educational setting, Mainstreaming, Parent and student choice, “Success for All”, “The Education Act (1989)”, “The Human Rights Act (1993)”, “NZ Disability Strategy (2001)”, SE 2000
Teachers engage in professional development, have knowledge of the second disability and associated behaviours, More education on Deaf culture , Exposure to NZSL
regular use of hearing devices, Better classroom acoustics, Effective communication strategies,
Access to the curriculum, Adaptation of the curriculum: realistic and achievable goals, Pace of learning adjusted to student, Programs individualized, Inclusion is a state of mind.
Pre-service training for teachers to develop confidence and expectations in teaching students with various needs children with diverse needs, More than just presence,
Inclusion is supported by early identification so less remedial work, Inclusion is supported by technology , Well managed audiological equipment
Barriers to successful inclusion
Classroom teachers are busy, they have to gather for huge diversity of learning needs, classrooms are noisy, the classes are too large,
Assumption that children can do more and hear more than they can. Example: a mild to moderate hearing loss combined with background noise,
High school may be about teaching subjects not about working with children with differences
Inclusion plus one extra thing
Taken out of the classroom for Checking hearing aids, Listening test, Language development,
Initial one to one with RTD to develop relationship, build trust, build knowledge of student and needs,
Remedial teaching, working in small groups within the classroom with RTD
In NZ, the numbers are too small to cater for certain multiple needs such as Deaf/autistic, mixture of mainstream and small unit class
they may lose out on a sense of identifying themselves with the Deaf community
Perspectives on special schools
Special schools give parents a choice
Students with multiple disabilities need specialist care and teaching
Mainstream teachers otherwise may be spread too thinly.
Schools with Special Education units provide excellent inclusion,
Inclusion can happen in a deaf unit if the students are treated as part of the school,
Special schools are fantastic but there may be no” perfect” placement for the child
provide the opportunity for learning sign language for communication and learning
build a strong sense of community and cultural understanding
offer specialists on a daily basis
learning about different personality types, Literacy, Collaboration , Working with other professionals, "Ka Hikitia", NZSL, Ongoing guided Professional Development with Auditory-Verbal Therapist on language acquisition, self Professional Plan (KDEC – RTD), “Collaboration for Success”
Professional Development is updated through:
Collaborative relationships with others, Supervision process – being supervised and supervising others,
Interdisciplinary exchanges, Seminars, Specialist education courses, Mentors, Reading Journals: The American Annals of the Deaf, The Volta Review: Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf’s journal, Voices.
Professional Development Support is needed in areas of:
cultural issues, Maori protocol, relating to preschool children, NZSL
Theories of learning that underpin our practice
Holistic development, Peer tutoring,
Vygotski – Zone of Proximal Development, scaffolding learning
Paulo Frere – responding to the culture and context of the people,
Bronfenbrenner -Constructivist therories
A.van Uden – the “maternal reflective method”
Elizabeth Kubler Ross: theory on grief
Ling – theory on speech acquisition
Human development - maturation
Brunner’s discovery learning: the inquiry process,
Language: Theory of Mind: frontal lobe-delayed language area,
Normal progression of certain speech sounds information
Assessment: where they are currently and look to the next steps
Practices that support successful education
ORS funding now distributed by the Deaf Education Centres, Holistic approach, Encouraging "He Kakano" and Prof. Russell Bishop’s research, Understanding the hearing loss of each child, Every child is different, Knowing and responding to individual learning needs, Understanding that deaf children are not hearing children that cannot hear, Knowing what to do with literacy, numeracy, receptive and receptive language, Evaluation and reflection of the teaching and learning process
Using the IEP process for the team to determine and target specific needs, The team includes the family and the student, “Collaboration for Success”, Work cooperatively with the classroom teacher and the teacher aides, Support and training for teacher aides, Support staff to encourage independence, Professional development for teachers.
Evidence based practice – what has been proven to work with deaf children
Students are lifelong learners and need to learn how to learn
Self reflection of teaching
Having a good understanding of the hearing technology, Students’ age, personality, learning styles, Auditory Skill program, Visual resources, Word banks-specific subject vocabulary banks, Strategies that work with one special needs student may work with another, Appropriate technology / resources , Audiology checks – FM systems, hearing aids, self management
Adapting the curriculum
Visual timetables and activity boards
Direct vocabulary teaching
Simplifying the language, Repetition, Indicate a change of topic clearly and visually, Deaf children miss out on incidental environmental conversation so need frequent immersions to learn a concept,
Personal qualities of Teacher of the Deaf
Build good professional relationships with teachers, team and students
Professional confidence, knowledge of current research,
Mode of communication, code switch- written English, signed English, gesture, NZSL,
Barriers to successful education
Lack of understanding by schools/teachers on the needs of deaf children
Child does not have what it needs to learn such as an interpreter or a note-taker
Student don’t have technology e.g FM system, Lack of support personnel/specialist help
Lack of sign interpreters in the classroom
Lack of available in-service Professional Development for teachers
Educational placement not best fit,
Opportunities for professional collaboration are few
Lack of understanding or valuing or maintaining of student’s technology
Lack of communication from home
ORS funding provider capture barrier
Limited vocabulary / language levels / minimal language experiences from the home
Lack of or unrealistic expectations from parents and teachers
Trying to fit the student’s needs into the school rather that meeting the needs of the students
Missed audiology appointments
Lack of language base to link new vocabulary into
Missing out on information
Matching the teaching approach with the learning style – guided by professional experience
Invaluable resources that support practice
Car, Resources produced by VADEC Media Centre, KDEC and Specialist Resource Teachers, Websites, ESOL resources, Benchmark Reading Resource, PM readers, Laptop, Stethoscope for testing hearing aids, Printer, ipad on wish-list, Curriculum document, Deaf Studies (includes Deaf culture plus NZSL), The Deaf Reading Checklist, The Deaf Student Writing Matrix, The NZ Curriculum, The Language Progressing Test (Standardized test from USA), Auditory Skills Programme from NSW
Benefits of mainstreaming deaf and hard of hearing children
A sense of belonging to the mainstream school culture ,
Equips deaf and hard of hearing students to adapt to the wider community as well as with the appropriate skills/attitudes/behaviour,
Higher expectations – achieve similar to their hearing peers,
Develop social relationships outside of their deaf world
Shortcomings of mainstreaming children with hearing loss
Teachers engage in professional development, have knowledge of the second disability and associated behaviours, More education on Deaf culture , Exposure to NZSL
Reading books eg: those written or edited by Marc Marschark, The resources on listed the KDEC website, including “First 100 words” and “Prepositions”,
The websites http://www.cochlear.com/ http://www.cochlearamericas.com/ , Ongoing study,
The internet, Speech and language training, Familiarisation with modern pedagogy, Newsletters, Call-back days
3.KDEC has NZSL courses however as they are usually in Auckland, Wellington or Christchurch
4. Deaf culture is an area most teachers would like professional development support in.
5. It would be interesting to know how many students associate themselves with Deaf culture, that is which cultural identity comes first; Deaf, European, Tongan, Maori,
5. "The respect that I expect other people to give to me and my students that I do the same to them".
6. "I like to be called my name correctly and the same for my students- making sure that I pronounce their names correctly".
7. Being sensitive to some of the protocols that are linked to their culture such as when you are doing celebrations-
8. Respect and appreciate their cultures.
5. Be culturally sensitive
6. Building bridges to the diverse communities and background of our students
High need students need to have a time out space to retreat
What does evidence based practice mean for specialised teachers of the deaf?
The codes and legislations that guide our practice
1.Registered Teacher’s Code of Ethics (2006)
about ensuring respect, safety, professional relationships, commitment to families
2. The Code of Ethics - can inform future goals, inform reflection in working with families, informs discussion with colleagues about issues, affects expectations of colleagues and can guide professional relationships
3. Justice – The Sharing of Power and Truth very important in education
4. Do no harm principle is important
6. Human Rights Act ( Mainstreaming at parents’ choice; Consider holistic needs of children)
7. NZ Disability Strategy
8. Equal Employment Opportunities (EEO)
9. Special Education Principles
10. School policy guidelines
11. NZ Curriculum docs including NZSL curriculum
12. Deaf Education Centre guidelines
Solutions to Ethical dilemmas
Discuss/consult/negotiate/refer to CODES and policies/triangulate data
Document the process carefully
Get all versions of the story to get the facts right
Get support/advice from others
Deal with people in an open, unemotional, pleasant, approachable, professional, constructive, honest, respectful way
Through discussion with the Regional coordinator or the Principal/school leaders
Consideration of personal ethics
Invite AODC to advocate
Advocating for the child and their learning at staff meetings
Aggregation of funding for deaf students: needing to explain to schools and provide references for further investigation
Have strategies/plan of action
Families: some require extra time
Make sure that everyone has the same information
Follow applicable legislation, codes and policies
Maintain accurate records e.g:- attendance, anecdotal notes, incident reports
Adopt another world view
Use lateral thinking strategies
Being an effective, approachable team leader
Examples of Ethical Dilemmas
When parents/teachers/students want different things e.g placement, working with Maori families
Issues around classroom teachers’ competency,
Being a visitor in a classroom and not agreeing with the teacher’s practice,
Many perspectives on advocating for the student in a school/classroom situation
Teachers’ lack of time/motivation to review deaf child’s learning
Needs and technology, Attendance issues,
Difficult for SENCOs and other professionals getting together for meetings and discussions
For IEPs different perspectives according to family beliefs, personalities and professional focus,
Hearing aid problems; left at home, not worn, broken, lost
Parents not coping with child’s disability and technology
Use of interpreters in the regions: who pays for this?
Parents in denial of child’s needs, Breakdowns in communications
Isolation problems (RTD) being on the road,
Mainstream teacher leaving all teaching and responsibility to TOD or support worker
Dressing inappropriately when visiting families e.g. Muslim families
Empowers teachers and leads to self efficacy,
Chance to match practice with professional standards,
Adapt to changes,
Allows teachers to know why and what they do, to refine, improve, and add knowledge to practice,
Can happen individually and collegial, formally and informally, through appraisals (team or individual), professional development, IEPS, cyclic reviews, daily planner- room for a daily reflection comment, mentors-formal(colleagues/managers) and informal (family/friends)
Examples of Reflective Questions
Have I fulfilled obligations to family & student and school?
Am I meeting IEP goals?
Have I provided impartial information?
Have I supported and communicated with school and family?
Have I complied with the acceptable standards of the Code of Ethics?
Have I complied with the acceptable standards of the Registered Teachers Criteria?
Have I remained unbiased in teaching and learning provision? Have I followed the inquiry model of teaching?
Have I adapted the lesson/practice to meet the needs of the student?
Have I supported the classroom teacher and kept in constant communication with and reflected back with the classroom/mainstream teacher?
Do I reflect constantly?
How is reflection part of my annual appraisal/competency?
How can I work in partnership with Maori and whanau as well as other cultures?
How can I maintain confidentiality?
Have I reflected informally as well as formally?
Have I shown commitment to current policies and procedures?
Have I gathered evidence?
Have I reflected on activities, on assessments, on performance (my practice and the child’s)
Systems/People that provide support
Refer to the knowledge skills and expertise of colleagues
Refer to the Code of Ethics (Registered Teachers), senior managers, fellow RTDs, senior RTDs
Consult the experiences of other teachers
The head of Department/senior teacher
The AODC, the Assistant or Deputy principal
Video conference connecting Ddvisors on Deaf Children (AODCs) where we can discuss troubling issues,
Discussions at staff meetings
Consultations with a Cultural Advisor at MOE
General Job challenges
Too much time spent on travellingfor RTD
School provision can be unsuitable and out of the way
full signers and oral students in one class (communication)
meeting obligations and deadlines
limited ICT tools and facilitative devices
ESOL unit standards, IEPS, reading: running records, PM Benchmarks, PROBE, Writing: KDEC/VAN ASH Deaf students exemplars, NZSL curriculum, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Expressive vocabulary Test
Current Level of Functioning (CLF), Sylvia Romanik- Auditory Verbal, Language sample Analysis-Bloom and Lahey, Van Asche enunciation and articulation tests, ASSTLE, Burt word reading test, South Australian Spelling test, Teacher Assessment of Grammatical structures(TAGS), Ling Language Assessment, SLT and audiology reports/tests
Approaches to Assessment
Formative/Summative, narrative, focus on key competencies, looking at strengths and then scaffolding, culturally responsive- collaboration with families, digital – can be more engaging and with immediate feedback, overall teacher judgement
IEPs should be a working document- referred to regularly, reviewed, revised, AFOL (Assessment for Learning) using WALT (We are learning to…) to help children self-assess, observation and inter-professional consultation-informally and formally, assessment can create anxiety/stress levels, need to build confidence and motivation, adapt to needs, provide support e.g. interpreters, note takers, support staff, assistive technology, NCEA not based on age, focus on levels so students work at their level
Issues in Assessment for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Children
National Standards: show deaf children are not achieving generally; normed against hearing student samples; may need to be adapted for DHI students; valid?;
focus on deficit when we are trying to show individual success (conflict between IEP and National Standards); some DHI students will meet standards-should they be excluded?
Standardized: most tests are normed against hearing students, American/Australian/English samples- not enough NZ and DHI normed tests; validity problems when tests need modifications to meet DHI students’ needs; not accessible to all DHI children e.g. interpreted in NZSL?
NCEA: literacy had oral component which many DHI students can’t achieve-discriminatory and needs alternative to achieve credits
Little assessment in NZSL , curriculum document not enough, no national data
REFLECTIVE AND ETHICAL PRACTICE
"Ma whero ma pango ka oti ai te mahi"
With red and black the work will be complete
This refers to co-operation where if everyone does their part, the work will be complete.
The colours refer to to the traditional 'kowhaiwhai' patterns on the inside of the meeting houses.
University of Canterbury 2012