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Year 9 History Gallipoli
Transcript of Year 9 History Gallipoli
11 month conflict
Battle between Turkey(with German commanders) against British, French
and ANZAC forces(Troops from New Zealand and Australia) Overview of the Campaign Gallipoli Peninsula Termanology and Locations Allied Forces Commanders Central Forces Led by General Sir Ian Hamilton and
Admiral Sir John de Robeck Sir Ian Hamilton Led by German L.T. General Otto Liman
von Sanders and Mustafa Kemal Pasha Allies Starting Forces Central powers 5 divisions reinforced up to 16
The beginning assault consisted
of 4 untrained ANZAC Division
and the British 29 division 6 divisions reinforced up to 16
The beginning defensive force consisted of 6 regular divisions British Strategy The main Idea of the plan was to take Constantinople, the capital of Turkey.
In doing so it would allow transport between Russia and England.
It would also convince the Neutral nations surrounding Germany and the Black Sea to join the war on the side of the Allies Sea bombardment Sea bombardment and five pronged assault Turkish Strategy The defending German L.T. General von Sanders, after learning the information that Britain was going to land an expeditionary force on the peninsula, strategically placed the insufficient forces he had in all of the critical areas that had needed defended along the coasts The combat started out with a
2 week long bombardment by
british war ships, These devastated Turkish
forts and cities. As effective as these were
while growing ever closer to Constantinople
German U-boats struck sinking 3 Battle ships
Forcing the British to retreat. The Turkish about to abandon their capital
expecting the British to come back in force when
amazed when the British did not come. The Five and one The British after being forced back due to losses on the navel campaign realized they could not take Constantinople through navel power by itself. The Five and one Continued... The Beginning British offensive was a 5 pronged attack along the tip of the peninsula aiming at Cape Helles and a supplemental ANZAC force landing at the beach Ari Burnu(which is later renamed ANZAC cove because of the bravery of these men) However the Assault was not as simple as that France also took, Kum Kale on the asiatic coast as a diversion. Along with this two other feints were performed, part of the British fleet went north in order to make von Sanders think they were going to land at another coastline and the french feinted an attack at Besika bay The British strategy was a hit, they attacked the enemy when their defense was the weakest. Since the five other Turkish divisions were spread out to prevent further invasion and to fend off the feint attacks. The british in overwhelming odds fought 35,000 to 4,000 during their Initial 5-pronged attack The British Chance! Despite the British's overwhelming odds, mismanagement and inexperienced solders led to the deadlock that most of the campaign was known for. The attacks on Cape Helles was nearly a failure considering what the British forces should have succeeded in taking considering their numbers.
The Turkish resistance was amazing considering their number with 4,000 men they succeeded in defending two of the beaches, beach W, and V. Even so the British field commander at this time chose not to attack after he succeeds in taking 3 of the beaches, possibly the biggest mistake of the entire campaign Failure? March 18, 1915 February, 19, 1915 The final attack off the landings was the ANZAC's landing on the beach at Ari Burnu. This attack, despite all of the ANZAC forces being unseasoned soldiers, went surprisingly well. A Total of 17,000 soldiers were present. At first they encountered no resistance at all and continued from the beach head to a location called Bair Chunk Height, which was a strategic position overlooking the entire peninsula The ANZAC landing Mustafa kemal realizing that this advance had to be pushed back quickly gathered a single regiment and said this to them as they were about to attack and running out of ammo.
"I do not order you to fight, I order you to die. In the time which passes until we die, other troops and commanders can come forward and take our places."
And with a story book like ending his ill equipped forces Fought for and defended every inch of land, every single member of the regiment was killed or wounded. As a sign of respect for this event there has existed no 57th regiment in turkey's army to this day. The Turkish Counter attack After the initial landing what would seem to be a miniature western front appeared between the two forces. Stalemate set in and both sides battered at each other for the next 9 months with fruitless assaults until finally a new commander was placed in charge who realized from his troops condition that this was now a sufficient waste of good men. Results of the Initial landing First Battle of Krithia, 28th April 1915: allied loss
Counter at Eski Hissarlik, 1st May 1915: Turkish loss
Second Battle of Krithia 6th May 1915: Allied loss
Turkish Attack on ANZAC cove 19th May 1915: Turkish Failure
Third Battle of Krithia, 4th June 1915: Allied loss
Battle of Gully Ravine, 28th June 1915: Allied loss
Attack on Achi Baba 12th July 1915:Allied loss
Landings at Suvla Bay, Battle of Lone Pine, Battle of Sari Bair, Battle of the Nek, 6th August 1915: Allied losses
Battle of Hill 60, 21st August 1915: Allied loss
Battle of Scimitar Hill, 21st August 1915:Allied loss
Evacuation starts 18th December 1915 A list of Skirmishes and major battles of the campaign and their winners After so many failed attempts at trying to force the campaign, the evacuation was the only successful Allied move other than the Initial attack. The British in order not to aggravate the Turkish empire into attacking their retreating forces conceived a great many ways to make it look as if they were still in there trenches. such as a mechanism to automatically set off a gun every once in a while.
This was the only completely successful British plan. Evacuation: The West near the end of the year had decided that the casualty rates for the Campaign were far too high and were swayed to evacuate
Ian Hamilton the General in charge was removed from his post and because of his failure lost his rank and honor after returning to Britain
Winston Churchill's reputation suffered because of this event and the fact he sponsored it.
One of the commanders that led many failed assaults Hunter-Weston would later Fight in the battle of Somme Western results: In total the allied forces had 252,000 Casualties of 480,000 men
While the Turkish forces had a total estimated of 250,000 Casualties of the same amount of men Casualties The British were fighting an offensive battle
The battle field conditions were horrible for the soldiers disease ran rampant and the summer conditions were intolerable
British Leadership was inept, and pathetic they were almost literally riding on their fame to get through the initial attacks
Communication technology could not support the grand scheme they had in motion which also led to their downfall
The Turkish army had more soldiers and better trained soldiers to choose from since they were not fighting on the western front. Reasons for British Failure