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Irish Nationalism

Physical force, constitutional and cultural nationalism
by

Fintan O'Mahony

on 27 November 2015

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Transcript of Irish Nationalism

Physical force nationalism
What was that?
Unionist wanted to hold on to the Union
Nationalist wanted to end/change it
3 types of Nationalism developed
What was that?
Unionists knew that as long as Conservatives stayed in power the Union would be safe
Constitutional
Nationalism
What was that?
Meanwhile:
Labour movement
Lock Out
Sinn Fein
Arthur Griffith
Dual Monarchy
Irish Nationalism
Cultural Nationalism
So....
So...
British rule
Republic
Home Rule
The anger of the Irish changed to shock and outrage when details of the executions became known
Martyrs were made of the leaders
BUT there were no political parties which represented this kind of Nationalism
The Rising was often called a Sinn Fein Rebellion
People began to join Sinn Fein
Republic replaced Home Rule for people

Eamonn de Valera won East-Clare by-election
Became leader of new Sinn Fein
He combined Volunteers, 1916 and Sinn Fein
CONSCRIPTION CRISIS
Britain needed more soldiers
SF organised a campaign against conscription
British dropped the idea
SF gained support
First election since 1910
SF abstained

'We will use the election to set up an Irish Parliament and declare a Republic'

SF wiped out Home Rule Party
THE WAR OF INDEPENDENCE
Sinn Fein set up the first Dail after abstaining from Westminster
ON 21 JANUARY 1919 The Dail met for the first time in Dublin
27 out of 73 TDs were present
The rest were in jail or on the run
No other party was represented
The business of the first Dail:
(a) The Proclamation of Independence was read
(b) They discussed a Democratic Programme for social reform
(c) They appointed delegates to the Peace Conference at Versailles

The meeting was declared illegal by the British government
The fight for control had begun
On the same day an attack by the Volunteeers at Soloheadbeg. Co. Tipperary killed two policemen (RIC)
This is regarded as the first attack in the
WAR OF INDEPENDENCE
The Volunteers, now often called the Irish Republican Army, attacked isolated RIC Barracks searching for guns and ammunition; the RIC withdrew from many small towns
The IRA engaged in GUERILLA WARFARE
The man who ran the IRA at the time was MICHAEL COLLINS
Born in Cork in 1890
Emigrated to London where he joined the GAA, Gaelic League, IRB and Volunteers
Returned and took part in 1916 Rising
With many others he was sent to Frongoch Prison in Wales -'Universities of Revolution'
When they were released, Collins reorganised the Volunteers or IRA
Elected to the Executive of Sinn Fein and appointed Minister for Finance in the 1st Dail
During the War of Independence he was Director of Intelligence of the IRA
He contolled a spy network and organised the Squad
The war intensifed
The British saw law and order collapse in Ireland
They sent the BLACK AND TANS and AUXILIARIES to Ireland in 1920
BLACK AND TANS and AUXILIARIES
They were ex-WW1 soldiers who were often unemployed
They were easily harassed, began to use terror against the IRA and civilians
1920-War at it's most violent
Stalemate
By mid-1921 the IRA had realised they were not capable of defeating the British
The British could not fight against guerilla warfare
A TRUCE WAS AGREED IN JULY 1921
THE TREATY
In October a delegation was sent to London to negotiate a Treaty which would outline a new relationship between Ireland and Britain
The Irish wanted a 32-county republic
The British wanted a PARTITIONED IRELAND
The British had given the Unionists 6 counties in 1920
They wanted Ireland to remain inside the COMMONWEALTH
The Irish were less experienced
By 6 December 1921 British Prime Minister
David Lloyd George threatened war if the Irish
didn't sign the treaty
They did so reluctantly
The Treaty divided Ireland because
Partition would remain
Dominion Status, not a Republic
Oath of Allegiance
Boundary Commission
Governor General
Arguments FOR the Treaty
They may not have got everything they wanted,
but the alternative was war
There would be peace, British would withdraw
Dominion Status was better than Home Rule
The Treaty was a STEPPING STONE' to a republic
They were led by Griffith and Collins
Arguments AGAINST the Treaty
The delegates had been tricked, nothing less than a republic would do
Ireland within the Commonwealth was unacceptable
The Oath of Allegiance was unacceptable
War was a better alternative
They were led by de Valera
TREATY DEBATES
The debates lasted from 14 Dec 1921 to Jan 7 1922
PARTITION was hardly mentioned
Every TD spoke
64 voted in favour
57 voted against

De Valera resigned as President of the Dail and Griffith replaced him
THE CIVIL WAR
The IRA split
Pro-Treaty
Free State Army
Regulars
Anti-Treaty
Republicans
Irregulars
As British forces withdrew, both sides tried to take over army barracks
APRIL 13 Irregulars led by Rory O'Connor seize the Four Courts
Collins was reluctant to use force against former comrades
JUNE General Election showed the majority supported the Treaty
JUNE 28 Collins, under pressure from the British, orders the shelling of the Four Courts, CIVIL WAR begins
The irregulars surrendered after a week of fighting in Dublin
They retreated into Munster
Fierce fighting continues in July and August
Free State Army captured major towns and cities

August 12 Arthur Griffith died
August 22 Michael Collins killed in an ambush at Beal na Blath, Co. Cork



Atrocities continued on both sides
By spring 1923 the Irregulars
were defeated
Irish Republican Brotherhood had a significant role in the Irish Volunteers, even though MacNeill did not want Violence
IRB's main aim: armed rebellion
'England difficulty is Ireland's opportunity'
IRB set up a Military Council and agreed to stage a rebellion at Easter 1916
1916 Rising
Patrick Pearse
HE BELIEVED IRISH FREEDOM WOULD ONLY COME AFTER A BLOODY REVOLUTION
1913 joine
d Irish Volunt
eers and
IRB
1912 wrote 'The Murder Machine
'
1909 set up St Enda's Schoo
l
1903
appointed editor
An Claid
heam
h Solais, the G
aelic League
newspaper
Educate
d by Christian
Brothers, became a
barrist
er
Born Dublin 1879
He was willing to sacrifice his own life for that belief
The Easter Rising and it's Aftermath
April 20 1916 (Holy Thursday)

IRB show MacNeill the

Castle Document
They also told him guns were on the way from Germany
MacNeill tells Volunteers to prepare to defend themselves
April 21 1916 (Good Friday)
The Aud is captured off Kerry, Roger Casement is captured nearby
April 22 1916 (Holy Saturday)
MacNeill learns the truth about the Castle Document and
cancels his orders
April 23 1916 (Easter Sunday)
Military Council decide to go ahead with the Rising
April 24 1916 (Easter Monday)
They occupy various positions around Dublin,
Pearse reads the Proclamation of Independence
from outside the GPO
April 26 1916
The British reaction begins, the gunboat
Helga
shelled the GPO, pressure grows to defend Volunteer positions
April 29 1916
Pearse surrendered
a hopeless position
450 were dead, 2,600 were wounded
1,600 Volunteers were arrested
and sent to prison camps.
As they marched through Dublin
they were jeered by onlookers
.
A Special Military Court
sentenced 90 to death
.
3-12 May 1916
15 were executed including the seven signatories of the Proclamation
.
Many others had their sentences changed to
life imprisonment
.
In August
Roger Casement was also executed
for treason.
These tactics frustrated the British
knowledge of the countryside
support of the people
surprise attacks
no uniforms
December 10- Black and Tans burn most of central Cork in revenge for IRA attacks
November 28- Tom Barry's FLYING COLUMN ambush Auxiliaries at KIlmichael, Co. Cork
The day becomes known as BLOODY SUNDAY
Black and Tans take revenge at Croke Park, twelve killed, including one Tipperary footballer
November 21- Collins' Squad murdered 11 British agents in Dublin
November 1- Kevin Barry hanged at 18 for his part in an IRA ambush in Dublin
October 25- Terrence MacSwiney, next Lord Mayor of Cork, died, Brixton Jail after 74 day hunger-strike
August- Auxiliaries arrive
Black and Tans arrive
March- Tomas MacCurtain, Lord Mayor of Cork, murdered by RIC
Full transcript