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The Night Sky

Honors Physics

Anna Brairton

on 9 May 2013

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Transcript of The Night Sky

By Anna Brairton
& Sarah Strohman The Night Sky Constellations Planetarium Software Light Pollution Meteor Shower Nebula Meteor Shower Charles Messier and Messier Objects Picture: http://www.fofweb.com/Science/LowerFrame.asp?SID=5&iPin=SciIllus5939&rID=2&InputText=constellations&SearchStyle=Keyword&RecType=Illustration&CurTab=All&RecCountVal=1&TopTermPrincCount=352&BioCount=35&ExpActCount=6&ImgCount=20&NwsCount=191 Planetarium Software is an application that allows a user to simulate the daytime and nighttime sky on a computer
These applications range from simple to complex. Some display a star chart or map for a specific time and location, and others show realistic photo views of the sky. What is light pollution?
Light pollution is an excessive amount of background light that mainly arises from human activities
This includes street, domestic, public building, factories, offices, and sports facilities lights that are used at night
All of these lights set a limit to the faintness of stars An interstellar cloud in outer space that is made up of dust, hydrogen and helium gas, and plasma. A spike in the number of meteors or "shooting stars" that streak through the night sky.
As a comet orbits the Sun it sheds an icy, dusty debris stream along its orbit. If Earth travels through this stream, we will see a meteor shower Credit: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Messier Constellations are Stellar Definition: An easily identifiable configuration of the brightest stars in a moderately small region of the night sky (Encyclopedia of Space and Astronomy)
The motion of the Earth affects which constellations we can see.
Constellations were recognized around 2500 BCE by early stargazers from Mesopotamia who used the stars to tell stories to honor heroes and ferocious creatures Light Pollution Light Pollution also comes from sources other than humans
These are predominant on a moonless night
The air glow and other atmospheric effects
The light that arises from the scattering of sunlight by the dust in the Solar-System
The background light of our Galaxy Comets Comets are cosmic snowballs of frozen gases, rock and dust roughly the size of a small town
When a comet's orbit brings it close to the sun, it heats up and spews dust and gases into a giant glowing head larger than most planets
The dust and gases form a tail that stretches away from the sun for millions of kilometers A galaxy is any large collection of stars that can be recognized as a distinct physical entity.
Many galaxies also continue to form new generations of stars What is a Galaxy? Elliptical Galaxies Spiral Galaxies Irregular Galaxies Three main components: a bulge, disk, and halo
spherical structure found in the center of the galaxy.
mostly contains older stars.
Made up of dust, gas, and younger stars
Forms arm structures
halo of a galaxy is a loose, spherical structure located around the bulge and some of the disk.
Contains old clusters of stars, known as globular clusters
Loose, spherical structure located around the bulge and some of the disk The largest single star systems in the universe
Built by the collisions of many smaller galaxies
Contain up to a trillion stars
Unlike spirals and lenticulars, they have no discernible structure
It's simple! They are a massive blob of stars in the shape of a sphere. Elliptical Galaxy Credit: M. West (ESO, Chile), NASA, ESA and the Hubble Heritage These galaxies have no regular or symmetrical structure
2 Groups:
Irr I and IrrII
Irr I galaxies have elemental hydrogen gas and many young hot stars
Irr II galaxies have large amounts of dust that prevent the light from the stars from shining through Irregular Galaxy Credit: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Irregular_galaxy What comes to mind when you think of the night sky? In this presentation you will discover that there is much more to the night sky than is visible to the naked eye. Credit: Scientific American Magazine (http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=the-night-sky-will-fade-to-black) Hubble The Hubble Space Telescope is a space telescope that was carried into orbit by a Space Shuttle in 1990 and remains in operation
The Hubble telescope has taken pictures of stars, galaxies, nebulae and more. Credit: NASA, http://hubblesite.org/ An Irregular Galaxy Photographed by the Hubble A Spiral Galaxy Photographed by the Hubble Credit: NASA, http://hubblesite.org/ An Elliptical Galaxy Photographed by the Hubble Credit: NASA, http://hubblesite.org/ Nebula Photographed by the Hubble Credit: NASA, http://hubblesite.org/ Credit: NASA, http://hubblesite.org/ Video This video will better display planetarium software! http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/planets/profile.cfm?Object=Comets http://www.space.com/18484-vistas-look-at-the-helix-nebula.html A French astronomer
He published an astronomical catalog consisting of nebulae and star clusters that came to be known as the 110 "Messier objects"
He made this catalog to help astronomical observers, in particular comet hunters such as himself, distinguish between permanent and transient objects in the sky http://inside-sonoma.com/see-the-stars/meteor-shower/ http://spore.wikia.com/wiki/File:Spiral-galaxy-wallpaper.jpg Charles Messier Thank you fellow Physics students! We hope you have enjoyed our presentation.
Questions? Some nebulae are regions where new stars are being formed, while others are the remains of dead or dying stars.
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